A -BC - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - QR - S - T - V

A

Indawo yokuhlala ngelizwi: utyekelo lokwenza intetho yomlomo ngakumbi nangakumbi kwiimpawu zezwi ze-interlocutor (UMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

I-aphasia engekhoyo: [aphasia] I-Aphasia ebonakaliswa yimveliso engalunganga, izivakalisi ezifutshane, ubuchule bokuthetha, ukungasebenzi kakuhle; kunokubakho i-agrammatism. Iikhrayitheriya zokwahlula aaphasia okutyibilikayo kokungatyibilikiyo yile: ubukho beapraxia yomlomo, ubude besivakalisi, inani lentetho, ubukho be-agrammatism okanye ijoggon kunye neprosody. Ngokubanzi, ubukho beapraxia yomlomo kunye nobude besivakalisi buqwalaselwa ikakhulu: ukuba azikho izivakalisi ezinamagama amathandathu ubuncinci (ubuncinci isivakalisi esinye kwishumi) ngokubanzi aphasia ayihambi (I-Basso, Ukwazi kunye nokufundisa kwakhonaaphasiaI-2009: 64).

I-Aphemia: [aphasia] Ikota yokuqala yento eza kubizwa kamva aphasia, eyenziwe nguPaul Broca ukuchaza abo bangakwaziyo ukuzithetha ngamazwi nangona benolwazi olululo.


Isifungo: [ulwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: ukutshintsha isandi esinefricic kunye nesisitheliso. Umzekelo: "cagia" ye "ndlu" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Uhlalutyo lokwahluka (ANOVA): [izibalo, indlela yophando] indlela yeenkcukacha-manani ekuvumela ukuba uthelekise amaqela ahlukeneyo kwinkqubo enye ye-falsation ye-null hypothesis, ngokuthelekisa umahluko phakathi kwamaqela kunye nokwahluka okungafaniyo UBolzani noCanestrari, Logic yovavanyo lwe Statistical, 1995).

I-Anteriorizzazione: [ulwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: ukubuyisela isandi esingasemva nesangasemva. Umzekelo: "tasa" ye "ndlu" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology).

aposiopesis: [iilwimi] Ukuphazamiseka ngokukhawuleza kwesigwebo esingaqhubekiyo. Njengomzekeliso, ujonge ukuvumela umfundi okanye umphulaphuli ukuba aqikelele sonke isivakalisi. Kwimeko ye-aphasia, nangona kunjalo, ihlala inefuthe lokungazibandakanyi nokungakwazi ukuqhubeka ngenxa yobunzima kulwakhiwo lwesigwebo okanye iingxaki ekubuyiseni ixesha.

Ukufunda ngaphandle kwempazamo: [I-neuropsychology, inkumbulo] indlela yokukhumbula ekuqaleni yaphuhliswa kwizigulana ezinobunzima kakhulu, ezibandakanya ukukhokelwa nokuququzelelwa kokufunda kolwazi ukunqanda impazamo kunye nokukhunjulwa kwinqanaba elibekiweyo (jonga kwakhona Ukufunda ngokungahambekiyo ekubuyiselweni kwengqondo kwengqondo: Uphononongo olugwenxa, 2012; I-Mazzucchi, Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, i-2012).

Apraxia: [i-neuropsychology] ukuphazamiseka kokufezekiswa kweentshukumo ezifundisiweyo, zozibini izimbo zomzimba zokusetyenziswa kwezinto kunye nezimbo zomzimba. Ayisosiphumo sokutshintshwa kwenkqubo yemoto, ukusilela kwengqondo, ukunqongophala kwengqwalaselo okanye intsilelo ekunakanweni kwezinto (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia efanelekileyo: [neuropsychology] apraxia malunga nokusetyenziswa kwento (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-Ideomotor apraxia: [I-neuropsychology] i-apraxia echaphazela uguquko lwezimbo zomzimba ezizodwa, zombini ezingenantsingiselo (ngokuxelisa) kunye nomfuziselo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001)

Iapraxia eyakhayo: [I-neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia ejongene nokufezekiswa komfanekiso wejometri (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Iapraxia yokunxiba: [I-neuropsychology] i-apraxia malunga nokukwazi ukunxiba (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia yamehlo: [neuropsychology] apraxia ebandakanya utshintsho lweentshukumo zamehlo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

NgoMatshi Apraxia: [neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia ekhokelela kukungakwazi ukuthatha amanyathelo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-Optic ataxia: [i-neuropsychology] intsingiselo yokunxibelelanisa into ebandakanya ukufikelela kwiimpazamo kunye nelungu elijolise kwinto ebonwayo. Ihlala ibangelwa ngumonakalo wobuchopho kwindlela ebonakalayo yangaphakathi. Akuxhomekekanga ekwamkeleni into ukuba ifikelele kwaye ibambeke, nangona kunjalo ukudibana nayo kwinqanaba lemoto kunzima (jonga kwakhona ILadàvas neBerti, iNqaku leNeuropsychology, ka-2014).

ukuthembeka (okanye ukuthembeka): [[psychometry] nepropathi yesixhobo sokulinganisa (uvavanyo) esibonisa inqanaba lokuzinza kwamanqaku xa imilinganiselo iphindwaphindwa. Ngamanye amagama, isixelela ukuba luthembekile kangakanani uvavanyo (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Ingqwalaselo ekhethiweyo: [I-neuropsychology ,qwalaselo] icandelo loqwalaselo olunxulumene nokukwazi ukwabiwa kwezixhobo zononophelo kwisikhuselo esifanelekileyo, ukunciphisa uphazamiso lwesikhuthazo esikhoyo kodwa esingafanelekanga komsebenzi oza kwenziwa. Indawo yengqwalaselo ekhethiweyo ibandakanya ukugxila kugxilwe, ingqalelo eyahlulelweyo kunye notshintshiselwano ingqalelo (UVallar et al., Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

B

I-Cactual Bilingualism (okanye iilwimi ezininzi): [ulwimi] xa iilwimi ezimbini zifundwe ngaxeshanye (bona Marini Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Iilwimi ezimbini eziLungelelanisiweyo (okanye ubuninzi bezinto) [ulwimi] xa iilwimi ezimbini okanye ezingaphezulu zifundwe ngaphambi kokufikisa kodwa hayi kwisangqa sosapho (umz. ukuhambisa) (bona Marini Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Ukusetyenziswa kweelwimi ezimbini (okanye ubuninzi): [ulwimi] xa kusetyenziswa ulwimi olunye okanye ezingaphezulu kusetyenziswa ulwimi lokuqala njengommeli (bona Marini Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Ukusetyenziswa kweelwimi ezimbini kwangoko: [ulwimi] xa umntwana evulelekile kulwimi lwesibini emva kolokuqala, kodwa nakweyiphi na imeko phambi kweminyaka yobudala esibhozo (jonga Marini Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Ukulandelelana kabini kolungelelwaniso: [ulwimi] xa umntwana evulelekile kulwimi lwesibini emva kolokuqala, kodwa emva kweminyaka esibhozo (jonga Marini Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Iilwimi ezimbini ngaxeshanye: [ulwimi] xa umntwana evezwe kwiintsuku zokuqala zobomi kwiilwimi ezimbini (bona Marini Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

C

Isigwebo sophatho (okanye ibinzana lenkxaso): ibinzana eliqhele ukusetyenziswa elinokusetyenziselwa ukufumana amagama athile (umzekelo: "Nceda undinike ...").

circumlocution: [iilwimi] Ndisebenzisa "ukujika kwebinzana" ukubhekisa kwigama elingenakufunyanwa (rhoqo kwi-aphasia). Umzekelo: "lowo ukusika isonka" ukuthi "imela".

Isakhono sokupela: [ukufunda] ukukwazi ukuhlonipha imigaqo-siseko kunye nezivumelwano ezikhoyo kulwimi lwethu lwangoku eziguqula ukuguqulwa kolwimi kumamkelwe okanye kucingwa kulwimi oluvakaliswa ngoographhemes (Tressoldi noCornoldi, 2000, Ibhetri yoVavanyo loBuchule noBuchule boPelo kwiSikolo seNyanzeliso)

Unxibelelwano olusebenzayo kunye nolunye unxibelelwano (CAA)Naluphi na unxibelelwano oluthatha indawo okanye lwandisa ulwimi lomlomo; yindawo yoqeqesho lwezonyango efuna ukubuyekeza ukukhubazeka okwethutyana okanye okusisigxina kwabantu abaneemfuno zonxibelelwano ezinzima (ASHA, 2005, ekhankanywe UConstantine, Wakha iincwadi kunye namabali nge-CAA, ngo-2011: 54)

AmaConduites d'approche: [aphasia] ukuzama ukusondela kwigama ngokuqalisa okungeyonyani okanye ngeparaphasias yefowuni. Umzekelo: "la pa ... pasca, la pasma, la pastia ..." ukuthi "ipasta" (jonga umzekelo IMarini, iNeurolinguistics Manual, ngo-2018: 143 e I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, ngo-2012)

ingxoxo: [I-neuropsychology] kwimeko yokuphazamiseka kwememori luphawu "oluqinisekileyo" oluqwalaselwe njengemveliso engazenzisiyo yeengxelo okanye iintshukumo ezingahambelaniyo nemvelaphi yesifundo okanye imeko yangaphambili, yangoku okanye yexesha elizayo (Ukusuka kwiindevuG. (1993b). Iipatheni ezahlukeneyo zokuhlanganaCortex29567-581) - enkosi ku-Ilaria Zannoni

ukuhlanganisa: [amanani, indlela yophando] ubudlelwane phakathi kwezinto ezimbini ezinokubangela ukwahluka kwenye. Oku kungaphezulu kokungafaniyo okubini kudityaniswa, kokuqina kokudibana kuya kuba. Ukudityaniswa kwahluka phakathi kwamanqaku u-1 (njengenye inyuka enye, ukunyuka okuphezulu) kunye no -1 (njengenye inyuka enye, kukho ukuhla okungapheliyo kolunye; ngamanqaku ayi-0, endaweni yoko ukungabikho kokunxibelelana ngokupheleleyo phakathi kwezi zinto zombini.
Ubukho bedibaniso, nangona bomelele, abubonisi unxibelelwano lwesizathu phakathi kwezi zinto zimbini (jonga kwakhona I-Welkowits, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Iinkcukacha-manani zeeSayensi zokuZiphatha, 2009).

Ukufika: [aphasia] ubuncinci, i-phonemic kunye / okanye isiphakamiso sobunzima, esinikwe kwimeko yokuba isiguli asikwazi ukubuyisela igama elizimeleyo ngokuzimeleyo (bona, umzekelo, uConro et et., Usebenzisa ulwazi lwefonosheni yokubiza amagama ngokuzenzekelayo ukuxela ukusabela kwento kunyango kunyango lwe-aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] uxinzelelo lokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo ekujoliswe kuso. Oku kwenzeka nge-lesion ye-neurons ekwimvelaphi yee-axons ezifikelela kwisakhiwo ekujolise kuzo, okanye ngokusebenzisa i-axion ye-axons ngokwayo (bona kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Ubuthathaka bengqondo: [I-neuropsychology] indlela ethobekileyo yokunqongophala kwengqondo (jonga kunye nokusilela kwengqondo okanye ukubuyiswa kwengqondo), ebonakaliswe ngokuchanekileyo ngokusebenza kakuhle kwengqondo (IQ phakathi kweminyaka engama-70 nama-50), ubunzima kulungelelwaniso lwentlalo kunye nokubonakala kokusilela ngexesha lokuphuhliswa.

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] uxinzelelo lokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo ekujoliswe kuso. Oku kwenzeka nge-lesion ye-neurons ekwimvelaphi yee-axons ezifikelela kwisakhiwo ekujolise kuzo, okanye ngokusebenzisa i-axion ye-axons ngokwayo (bona kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Ukudibana kwemida: [neuroscience] Ukulahleka okuqhubekekayo kwesakhiwo esithile kunye nomsebenzi we-neuron okanye iqela le-neurons elinokubangela ukunyamalala kwabo (bona kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

muffling: [ulwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: ukutshintshwa kwesandi esivakalayo nesisithulu. Umzekelo: "panana" ye "banana" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Ukuphambuka okumgangatho (kuthetha ukuphambuka kwesikwere): [izibalo] uqikelelo lokwehluka kwedatha, efunyenwe kwingcambu yesikwere yomahluko. Ibonisa ukuba ingakanani idatha isasazeke kumgangatho ophakathi (i.e.xa baphambuka kumndilili kuyo) kodwa, ngokungafaniyo umahluko, le paramenti iboniswa kwicandelo elinye lomlinganiso njengomndilili (jonga kwakhona I-Welkowits, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Iinkcukacha-manani zeeSayensi zokuZiphatha, 2009).

dysgraphia: [ukufunda] ukubhala nzima, ngaphandle kokuba oku kubangelwe kukuphazamiseka kwemithambo-luvo okanye ukusikelwa umda kwengqondo (Ajuriaguerra et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °. Levolution del'écriture et ses difficultés, 1979 cit kwi UDi Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: [I-neuropsychology] ukuphazamiseka okuchaphazela ukuqondwa kweendlela zokufunda iimoto, ngakumbi ezo ziqwalaselweyo ngexesha lokulingiswa. Ayisixhomekanga kwintsilelo yenkqubo yemoto, ukusilela kwengqondo okanye ukusilela kwengqondo. Yahlukile kwiapraxia kuba igama elithi dyspraxia libhekisa kukuphazamiseka okubonakalayo ngexesha lophuhliso (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-verbal dyspraxia: [ulwimi] Ukuphazamiseka kumbindi kwinkqubo kunye nokufezekiswa kweentshukumo ezichazayo eziyimfuneko ekuvelisweni kwezandi, amagama kunye namagama kunye nombutho wazo ngokulandelelana.I-Chilosis kunye neCerri, i-dalpraxia ye-Verbal, ngo-2009 vd. nayo ISabbadini, iDyspraxia kwiminyaka yobudala bokukhula: uvavanyo kunye neendlela zongenelelo, ngo-2005)

Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi kumlomo wesibini: [ulwimi] nakuphi na ukungafumaneki kolwimi okwenzeka ngexesha lokuphuhliswa, kunye nokuncipha kokuphazamiseka kolwimi ngokwalo, kwizifundo ezinoluhlu olunye okanye ngaphezulu kwezi nkqubo zilandelayo: ukubuyiswa kwengqondo, ukuphazamiseka ngokubanzi, ukukhula ngokubanzi womsebenzi wokuvalela, ukungalunganga okubalulekileyo kwinkcubeko yentlalo (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Umntwana onengxaki yokuthetha. Uvavanyo lonyango lokuthetha kunye nonyango, ECortina, eTurin 2008).

Ulawulo lweHemispheric: [i-neuropsychology] ukuxhaphaka kwe-hemisphere kwenye kolawulo lwengqondo okanye umsebenzi wemoto; ke sisiseko se-hemispheric lateralization. Imizekelo lulwimi, ngokwesiqhelo kunye namandla ashiyekileyo e-hemispheric, kunye neenkqubo ze-visuo-spatial, ene-hemispherical Rule (jonga kwakhona I-Habib, i-Hemispheric Dominance, i-2009, i-EMC - i-Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [ulwimi] uphinda-phindo lwamagama okanye amabinzana amamele, ngaphandle kokuqonda. Yenzeka ngokomzimba ebantwaneni ngokukodwa kwiminyaka engama-2-3 (UMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) kunye nengqondo yabantu abadala, umzekelo kwiiParkinson's.

Isiphumo sokulindelekileyo: [indlela yophando] utshintsho lweziphumo zophando ngenxa yokulindeleka kweziphumo ezikhuliswe ngumphandi okanye izifundo zovavanyo ngokwazo. Yachazwa okokuqala sisazi ngengqondo uRobert Rosenthal ekubizwa ngokuba ngamanye amaxesha Isiphumo seRosenthal (okanye nokuba Iziphumo zePygmalion o isiprofetho esizalisayo). Yinto ebaluleke kakhulu ukuba iqwalaselwe kuphando apho isiphumo somntu siyinto emiselweyo kwaye kwesi sizathu esi siphumo sihlala sibuza umbuzo njengeyona nto ibalulekileyo kwizifundo kwiziphumo zonyango ezingasebenzisi qela lolawulo lusebenzayo (okt. kunyango okanye kwenye indlela yovavanyo) okanye abangasebenzisi naliphi na iqela lolawulo.

Isimo sendlela: [ukufunda] bona Ithiyori yokuqonda yokuFunda kweMultimedia

Isiphumo sePygarmion: vedi Isiphumo sokulindelwa

Isiphumo sendawo: [isayikholoji, amayeza] ukuphuculwa okunikwa lunyango ngaphandle kweziphumo ezithile kwaye kunxulunyaniswe endaweni yokuthembela okubekwe kunyango ngokwalo. Esi siphumo, ngokufanayo kwiIsiphumo sokulindelwa, ihlala ingumqobo kuphando ngeziphumo zonyango kwaye igcinwa iphantsi kolawulo ngokusetyenziswa kwamaqela ezifundo, abizwa ngokuba zezabo amaqela olawulo, apho kungekho nyango lwenziwayo okanye olwenziweyo olubuxoki

Isiphumo sokungafani kwakhona: [ukufunda] bona Ithiyori yokuqonda yokuFunda ngeMultimodal

Isiphumo seRosenthal: vedi Isiphumo sokulindelwa

hemianopia: [i-neuropsychology] ilahleko yombono kwisiqingatha sendawo yokubonakalayo (okanye yenqanaba elinye kwimeko ye quadrantanopia) izilonda ezilandelayo ze-optic chiasm, iphedi ye-optic, i-radiation ye-optical okanye i-cortex ebonakalayo (jonga kwakhona ILadàvas neBerti, iNqaku leNeuropsychology, ka-2014)

Ukuzonwabisa kwendawo (bona ukuyekelela)

mazwi: [ulwimi] kuxhomekeke kwisigqibo esisetyenzisiweyo, inokuchazwa njenge "ukuphuma kwesandi phakathi kokunqumama okubonakalayo (kugcwele okanye kungenanto) kuhlala ubuncinci imizuzwana emibini" (isikhombisi se-acoustic), "ibhloko yokuqonda efanayo, okanye isiluleko esilula okanye esimbaxa" ( inqobo yesemantic), “isivakalisi esingundoqo silandelwa luluhlu lwezisekondari ezakhiwe kakuhle ukusuka kwindawo yegrama” (umgaqo wegrama). (UMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Chwetheza impazamo yam: [psychometrics] ukuyala into engekhoyo xa iyinyani.
Umzekelo: umphandi uqikelela ukuba unyango lwentetho oluphuculweyo luphucula imiba yezandi kunonyango oluqhelekileyo; emva kokufaka i-hypothesis kuvavanyo lokuvavanywa, iyayikhaba i-H0 (okt ukuba ezi ndlela zonyango zilinganayo) kwaye yamkela i-H1 (okt ukuba unyango olutsha lubhetele) kodwa enyanisweni ezi zonyango zimbini zinika iziphumo ezifanayo kwaye umahluko ofunyenweyo unxulumene iimpazamo zendlela okanye isiphumo sethuba (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Uhlobo lweempazamo zohlobo lwesibini: [psychometrics] yamkela into engekhoyo xa ixoka.
Umzekelo: umphandi uqikelela ukuba unyango lwentetho oluphuculweyo luphucula imiba yezandi kunonyango oluqhelekileyo; emva kokuvavanya i-hypothesis ngokuvavanywa, wamkela i-H0 (okt ukuba ezi ndlela zonyango ziyalingana) kwaye uyala i-H1 (okt ukuba unyango olutsha lubhetele) kodwa enyanisweni ezi ndlela zonyango zimbini zinika iziphumo ezahlukeneyo. Ukunqongophala kweziphumo kule meko, kwelinye icala, kuya kuxhomekeka kwiimpazamo zendlela, amanqaku amancinci angangqinelaniyo ngenxa yamathuba, okanye ngenxa yokunqongophala kwamandla kuvavanyo lwamanani (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

F

Iinyani ze-arithmetic: [iMathematics] Ziziphumo zenkqubo ye-arithmetic ekufuneka ingabalwa, kodwa sele ibanjelwe kwimemori. Umzekelo ukuphinda-phinda iitafile kunye nezibalo ezilula kunye nokuzithoba. (IPoli, iMolin, uLusangeli noCornoldi, IMemocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Iifilm: [aphasia] unqumamo olupheleleyo olwenziwe zizandi, iifowuni, iisilabhili okanye iziqwenga zamagama. Bafunyenwe ikakhulu kuqaliso lobuxoki. "Nokuba namhlanje lusuku oluhle" (umzekelo. Umzekelo IMarini, iNeurolinguistics Manual, ngo-2018: 143)

phonology: [iilwimi] Uqeqesho olufunda ubuchule bezandi kwisithethi esinabo kulwimi lwenkobe, leyo yinkqubo ekhula kwiminyaka yokuqala yobomi bomntu nalapho kuthi kusekwe umahluko phakathi kwezandi ezahlula iintsingiselo nezandi sukubahlula (ENespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Ibinzana elinombala: [ulwimi] Indlela edibanisa umbala owahlukileyo kwinto nganye yesivakalisi (inqaku, intloko, isenzi…). Ingasetyenziselwa zombini izivakalisi ezibhaliweyo kunye nezo zenziwe ngemifanekiso (jonga, umzekelo, I-AA VV, i-protocol yonyango lwentetho ye-De Filippis, ka-2006).

I-Fricazione: [ulwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: ukubuyisela isandi esivelileyo okanye esityebileyo ngesithambisi. Umzekelo: "fasso" ye "nyaniso" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Functors: [iilwimi] vd. Amagama eklasi avulekileyo navalwayo

Imisebenzi yolawulo: [I-neuropsychology] iseti entsonkothileyo yemisebenzi yokuqonda nokucwangciswa kokuziphatha ngokuzinikela, eyimfuneko kwimisebenzi engezizo ezenzekelayo efuna ukonganyelwa okubalulekileyo. inqaku lethu kwimisebenzi yolawulo; UGrossi kunye noTrojano, iNeuropsychology yeeLobes zangaphambili, 2013).

G

endiza: [ulwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: ukumiselela isinxibelelanisi esihambisanayo kunye nesicatshulwa. Umzekelo: "foia" ye "leaf" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Isenzo seBatonicuhlobo lwesandla apho izandla zihamba ukusuka phezulu ukuya ezantsi ukumakisha amalungu egama okanye isivakalisi (kwindima yezandla. Isiseko sonyango lokuthetha kwinqanaba lokukhula, iphe. 234)

Ukulimala kobuchopho obuBi kakhulu: [i-neurology]: "Ukonzakala okukhulu kwengqondo okufunyenweyo" (GCA) kuthetha ukonakala kwengqondo, ngenxa yomothuko we-cranioencephalic okanye ezinye izizathu (cerebral anoxia, hemorrhage, njl.), njengokumisela imeko ye-coma (GCS = / < 8 ngaphezulu kweeyure ezingama-24), kunye ne-sensorimotor, ukukhubazeka kwengqondo okanye isimilo, kubandakanya ukukhubazeka okukhulu (cf. INkomfa yoGunyaziso: Ukuziqhelanisa nokulungileyo kweKlinikhi yokuBuyiselwa esiBhedlela kwabantu abanobunzima obufumeneyo).

Iqela lolawulo: [indlela yophando] kuphando apho ifundisisa khona iziphumo zokwahluka okuzimeleyo kumaqela ezifundo, umzekelo unyango, isampuli ihlala yahlulwe yangamaqela amabini ubuncinci: iqela lovavanyo, olufumana unyango phantsi kophando (okwahlukileyo ezizimeleyo), kunye neqela lolawulo, ekuthi endaweni yoko alufumani naluphi na unyango okanye lufumane enye engenye (ngenxa yoko alunanzwanga yimpembelelo yokwahluka okuzimeleyo). Iqela lolawulo lelinye apho iziphumo zonyango zithelekiswa kwiqela lovavanyo ukunciphisa impembelelo yokhetho olunokwenzeka (bona kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990).

I

Ukuphazamiseka kwimoto eyaziwayo: [i-neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] into ebonwa ngexesha lokwenziwa kwemoto ngaxeshanye (umzekelo ukuhamba) kunye nomsebenzi wokuqonda (umzekelo, uxela onke amagama aqala ngonobumba othile); kwezi meko kunokwenzeka ukuba ubone ukunciphisa ukusebenza kwemoto okanye kwengqondo okanye zombini. Ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo okuqondwa ikakhulu kufundiswa kwimeko ye-multiple sclerosis njengoko isenzeka rhoqo kwaye iphawuleka ngakumbi kunabantu abasempilweni (jonga uRuggieri et al., 2018, Imephu yesophawu ye-lesion yokuphazamiseka kwengqondo-yasemva kokuphazamiseka kwisifo sokuqina kwesifo).

Ukudityaniswa kwemodyuli: [I-neuropsychology] into edibanisa ulwazi oluvela kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zoluvo ukuya kwingqondo enye. Ngokuchanekileyo, luvo olubandakanya unxibelelwano phakathi kweendlela ezimbini okanye ezingaphezulu ezahlukeneyo zoluvo (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Ithuba lokungqina [psychometry] luluhlu lwamaxabiso phakathi kwemida emibini (esezantsi nesiphezulu) ngaphakathi kuyo, inokwenzeka (inqanaba lokuzithemba), kufunyenwe ipharamitha ethile.
Umzekelo. 102 (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Enye into: [psychometry] ikwabonisiwe nge-H1. kwicandelo lophando yingqikelelo equlunqwe ngumphandi nesizimisele ukuyivavanya.
Ukuba, umzekelo, umphandi uqinisekile ukuba olunye unyango lunikeza iziphumo ezahlukeneyo kunyango oluqhelekileyo, i-H1 iya kubonisa ubukho balo mahluko phakathi kweendlela ezimbini ezahlukeneyo.
Ikwachazwa njengaleyo ekuthi ngayo i-hypothesis engekhoyo ibubuxoki, ikwachaza amaxabiso ngexabiso elinikiweyo lomdla (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

I-hypothesis ye-Null: [psychometry] ikwabonakalisiwe kunye ne-H0, kwicandelo lophando ibhekisa kwingcinga ekukholelwa ukuba iyinyani xa kungekho bungqina buchaseneyo obunokuyiphikisa.
Ukuba, umzekelo, kuhloselwe ukubonisa ukuba unyango olunye lusebenza ngakumbi kunolunye, i-H0 iya kubonisa ukuba akukho mahluko phakathi kwezi ndlela zonyango.
Ikwachazwa njengeyona nto apho ixabiso leparadesi eluntwini lacaciswa okanye umahluko olindelekileyo (oqhele ukuhambelana no-zero) phakathi kweparameter yabantu ababini (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

L

Ubungakanani bexesha leNkcazo (LME): [ulwimi] Yaziswa nguBrown ngo-1973, ingqikelelo yobude besigwebo ibonisa umndilili wamagama okanye iimofimi eziveliswa sisithethi kwisampulu- ngesiqhelo- kwizivakalisi ezili-100 (jonga Isivakalisi). Enye yeempawu zezakhono zolwimi kwimveliso (yabona, uBrown, Ulwimi lokuqala, ngo-1973).

M

Ithiyori yeMaphu: [aphasia] Hypothesis ngokwezigulana ze-agrammatic, ngelixa zigcina ubuchule obuhle bes syntactic, zinobunzima ekunikezeni iindima zezihloko zesigwebo kubume bempikiswano yesenzi (jonga uBoscarato noModena ku UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 57)

Unyango lweMelodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): [aphasia] indlela yokubuyisela kwimeko yesiqhelo i-aphasia exhaphaza intetho (umculo kunye nesingqisho) ngokucula (jonga uNorton et al., Unyango lweMelodic, 2009)

Inkumbulo yokusebenza: [neuropsychology] Inkqubo ekuvumela ukuba ugcine okwethutyana ulwazi lokuyilawula okanye uyilawule (cf. I-Baddeley kunye neHitch, Imemori yokuSebenza, 1974). Jonga nenqaku lethu Yintoni imemori yokusebenza.

Inkumbulo yokujonga: [i-neuropsychology] ukubanakho ukukhumbula ukwenza isenzo emva kokuyicwangcisa (jonga umzekelo, URouleau et al. Ukuchaphazeleka okukhunjulwayo kwememori kwisifo se-sclerosis ezininzi: uphononongo, ngo-2017). Jonga inqaku lethu elibanzi Imemori yokujonga kwisifo sokuqina kwesifo esiqhelekileyo

Meta-analysis: [izibalo] iindidi zohlalutyo lweenkcukacha-manani ezivumela ukushwankathela iziphumo zezifundo ezahlukeneyo ngokubhekisele kwisihloko esifanayo, ukuzama ukunciphisa iziphumo zemithombo yokuguquguquka kweziphumo zezifundo ezizodwa, zenza nakuphi na ukuvela rhoqo (jonga nako I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Metacognition: Isigama sibhekisa kulwazi malunga nolwazi lwakho kunye, ngaxeshanye, iinkqubo kunye nezicwangciso ezililawulayo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-Metafonologia: ukukwazi ukuthelekisa, icandelo kunye nokucalucalula amagama aziswe ngomlomo kwisiseko sefonological yazo (UBhishophu kunye no-Snowling, iDyslexia yoPhuculo kunye nokukhubazeka kolwimi oluthile: ziyafana okanye zahlukile?, Psychol Bulletin 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

lwavuka (bona Ukubumba)

Ukugxothwa kunye ne-inflectional morphemes: i-morivmes evela kokunye etshintsha intsingiselo yesiseko (umz. Cas + in + a); infomational morphemes zitshintsha kuphela iindidi zamagama athobayo. Umzekelo, isini okanye inombolo: Cas + a (cf. UMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

ukuyekelela: [I-neuropsychology] ye-neuropsychological syndrome, ihlala ibangelwa kukulimala kwengqondo, okubandakanya ukusilela kokuqonda indawo. Umntu ozisa ezi mpawu ubonakalisa ubunzima ekuphandweni kwendawo yesivumelwano malunga nokulimala kwengqondo, ukungazi kakuhle imeko ekhoyo kwinxalenye yesithuba somntu (ngesiqhelo ngaphakathi), ngokubhekele phaya okanye ngokwangaphandle (jonga kwinqaku lethu Ukungahoyi: icala elimnyama lehlabathi)

Ukungakhathalelwa kwendawo (bona ukuyekelela)

Iigrons neurons: [I-neuroscience] iklasi yee-neurons ezenziwa zombini xa umntu esenza isenzo naxa umntu ofanayo ejonga isenzo esifanayo esenziwa sesinye isifundo (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [iilwimi] ukusetyenziswa kwegama elinye kwisitetimenti okanye isicelo esiza kufuna isivakalisi siphela. Yinto eqhelekileyo ekukhuleni kolwimi lokuqala emntwaneni. Ex: "cua" for "Ndifuna amanzi".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] igama eliveliswe ngokungachanekanga ngokubhekisele kwithagethi. Iparaphasia inokuba sisandi (umz: "libbio" ye "book") okanye semantic ("notebook" ye "book"). (jonga umzekelo IMarini, iNeurolinguistics Manual, ngo-2018: 143)

Vula kwaye uvale amagama eklasi: [ulwimi] amagama eklasi evulekileyo (okanye Umxholo wamagama) zizibizo, izichazi ezifanelekileyo, izenzi ezinezichazi nezihlomelo eziphela ngo -e; amagama weklasi avaliweyo (okanye Umsebenzi wamagama o functors) Izimelabizo, izichazi ezingafanelekanga, amanqaku, izihlanganisi, izincedisi kunye neesenzi zemodyuli. Ngelixa umxholo wamagama uhambisa iikhonsepthi ze-semantic, abonwabisi baveza ubudlelwane phakathi kwamagama.

Uhlalutyo lweeNxalenye zeFonotiki: [aphasia] indlela ecetywayo ULeonard, uRochon noLaird (ngo-2008) equka ukubonisa isigulana ngomfanekiso embindini wephepha kunye nesicelo sokubuyisa igama ekujoliswe kulo. Nokuba uphumelele kangakanani na, isigulana siyacelwa ukuba sifumane igama elinemvano-siphelo, ifonimi yokuqala, elinye igama eliqala ngefonim efanayo kunye nenani lamalungu. (jonga iBoscarato kunye neModena kwi UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 47)

Neuronal plastikiity: [I-neuropsychology] Amathuba okuba iiseli zemithambo zikwazi ukwenza eminye imisebenzi xa kufanelekile. (UGollin, uFerrari, uPeruzzi, Indawo yokuzivocavoca ngengqondo, 2007: 15).

Amandla ovavanyo lwe Statist: [psychometry] kuthetha amathuba okulahla into engeyiyo, ngovavanyo lweenkcukacha-manani, xa oku kububuxoki.
Umzekelo: ukuba uvavanyo olunikiweyo olunobungakanani besampulu olunikwe amandla linama-80%, oku kuthetha ukuba kukho ithuba elingu-80% lokufumana idatha esenza ukuba siyikhabe into engeyiyo, ngaphandle kokuba yinyani (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Inkqubo yenkqubo: [ulwimi] Ukufakwa kwenye ifonim kunye nenye, ngelixa ulungelelwaniso lwesilabhasi ihlala ingaguqukanga (bona, umzekelo, ISantoro, iPanero kunye neCianetti, ezona zibini zincinci 1, 2011).

Inkqubo yolwakhiwo: [ulwimi] Utshintsho lwendlela yesilabhasi yegama, kunye notshintsho kubuninzi bezinto kunye nolungelelaniso lweekhonsonityhi ezibunjiweyo (bona umzekelo, ISantoro, iPanero kunye neCianetti, ezona zibini zincinci 1, 2011)

Isiprofetho esizalisekayo: vedi Isiphumo sokulindelwa

Ukukhuthaza ukusebenza ngokuNxibelelana kweAphasics (PACE) : [aphasia] indlela ebambekayo kunyango lweaphasia apho ugqirha othetha achonga onke amacebo anokubakho okuqinisekisa ukomeleza ukwanela kokunxibelelana nesigulana (jonga isishwankathelo UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 105 e I-Charlemagne, iindlela eziPragmatic kunyango lweaphasia. Ukusuka kwiimodeli ezinobugcisa ukuya kubuchule bePACE, 2002)

Amanqaku anobunzima: [psychometry] Utshintsho lwe-arithmetic lwenqaku le-Z (elinentsingiselo engu-0 kunye nomgangatho oqhelekileyo wokuphambuka) ube manqaku anentsingiselo ye-1 kunye nokuphambuka okumgangatho 10. Xa kuthelekiswa nenqaku le-Z ngokwahlukileyo ngokubonakala kodwa iipropathi zihlala zifana. Uncedo lwayo lokwenza amanqaku ngexabiso elingelulo ngendlela engathandekiyo, nokuba iphantsi kakhulu kumndilili. Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezahlukeneyo ezifana, umzekelo, NEPSY-II.

Inqaku lesikali: [Psychometry] Utshintsho lwe-arithmetic lwenqaku le-Z (elinentsingiselo engu-0 kunye nomgangatho oqhelekileyo wokuphambuka) ube manqaku anentsingiselo ye-1 kunye nokuphambuka komgangatho 10. Xa kuthelekiswa nenqaku le-Z ngokwahlukileyo ngokubonakala kodwa iipropathi zihlala zifana. Uncedo lwayo lokwenza amanqaku ngexabiso elingelulo ngendlela engathandekiyo, nokuba iphantsi kakhulu kumndilili. Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezahlukeneyo ezifana, umzekelo, iWISC-IV.

Amanqaku oMgangatho: [Psychometry] amanqaku asetyenziswe kwiimvavanyo ezininzi (umzekelo kwi I-BVN 5-11) ezineepropathi ezifanayo ne-IQ (jonga kwanezifundo zeengqondo).

Amanqaku e-T (ubukhulu beT): [psychometry] Utshintsho lwe-arithmetic lwenqaku le-Z (elinentsingiselo engu-0 kunye nophambuko oluqhelekileyo 1) lube luphawu olunama-50 kunye nokuphambuka okumgangatho 10. Xa kuthelekiswa nenqaku le-Z ngokwahlukileyo ngokubonakala kodwa iipropathi zihlala zifana. Uncedo lwayo kukuba yenza ukubakho kwenqaku ngexabiso elingelulo ngokungathandekiyo, nokuba iphantsi kakhulu kumndilili (jonga kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990). Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezahlukeneyo ezifana, umzekelo Inqaba yaseLondon.

Inqaku le-Z (amanqaku omgangatho): [izibalo, i-psychometry] amanqaku abonisa ukuba lingakanani ixabiso eliphambukayo kumndilili olindelekileyo, uthelekisa ngokuthelekiso kumgangatho. Amanqaku athetha u-0 kunye nophambuko oluqhelekileyo 1 ukuze inqanaba le-0 libonakalise ixabiso ngokuhambelana nokulindelweyo, amanqaku aphezulu kuno-0 abonisa ixabiso elingaphezulu komndilili kunye nenqaku elingaphantsi ko-0 libonisa ixabiso elisezantsi kunomndilili. Ifunyenwe ngokukhupha ixabiso eliphakathi kwixabiso elibonisiweyo kunye nokwahlula yonke into ngokwahluka kumgangatho (Ixabiso elibonisiweyo - eendaba) / ukutenxa okuqhelekileyo (jonga kwakhona I-Welkowits, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Iinkcukacha-manani zeeSayensi zokuZiphatha, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (jonga hemianopia)

R

Isilingo esingaLawulwa eLangeni (i-RCT): [Indlela yophando] ichazwa njengohlobo “lokwenyani” lovavanyo lophando kuba ivumela ulawulo lomvavanyi olupheleleyo ngokuchaseneyo komdla. Inika ukuba izifundo ezenziwa kuzo uphando zabiwe ngokungacwangciswanga (zilandelelana) kwiqela lovavanyo okanye kwiqela lolawulo ukwenzela ukuba wonke umntu abe nethuba lokuphela kwelinye okanye kwelinye (amaqela angalunganga), oko kunciphisa amathuba okuba amaqela ahlukile kakhulu omnye komnye, anokuphosa ukuthandabuza kwiziphumo ezinokubakho zokutshintsha komdla (jonga kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990).

Umgangatho wepesenti: [izibalo, i-psychometry] ukubekwa emgangathweni ngokusekwe kwindawo ezifundayo ekuhanjisweni kwamanqaku kwinqanaba elisusela kwi-1 ukuya kwi-99. Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezininzi, umzekelo Ibhetri yase-Italiyane ye-ADHD (jonga kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990).

Unyango lwe-Reality Oriental Therapy (ROT): [i-neuropsychology] Unyango olona njongo yayo iphambili kukuphucula ukuziqhelanisa nexesha, indawo kunye nokuzihlonipha. Kukho iROT esesikweni (uthotho olucaciswe kakuhle lweentlanganiso) kunye neROT engekho sikweni, ephunyezwa ngabasebenzi abangabalulekanga imini yonke. (UGollin, uFerrari, uPeruzzi, Indawo yokuzivocavoca ngengqondo, 2007: 13)

Unyango oluncitshisiweyo lwe-Syntax (REST): [aphasia] Unyango kwizigulana ezinengxaki yokuthambeka, endaweni yokugxila ekuveliseni izivakalisi ezichanekileyo, zisebenza lula ukwakhiwa kwezinto ezilula ezinje ngezi zisetyenziswa ngokuhlangeneyo zizifundo eziqhelekileyo (eziphakanyiswe Springer et al., 2000; vd. IBass, Yazi kwaye uphinde ufundiseaphasia, 2009: 35)

Uhlengahlengiso [unyango lwentetho]: ubuchule obuqulathe ukuphindaphinda into eyenziwe ngumsasazi, ishiya intsingiselo ingaguqukanga kodwa inike imodeli echanekileyo ngokudibanisa igama elilahlekileyo okanye endaweni yegama elichanekileyo okanye elifanelekileyo (ngolwazi oluthe kratya jonga "Iindlela zongenelelo" kwi Isiseko sonyango lokuthetha kwinqanaba lokukhula, iphe. 235)

ukuqinisa: [isayikholoji, isimilo] isisonyusi esonyusa okanye esinciphisa ukubonakala kwendlela yokuziphatha ethile. Ukuqiniswa kwahlulahlulwe ngokweendidi ezine eziphambili: eziziiprayimari, ezesibini (okanye eziphantsi komgangatho), ukuqiniswa okuhle nokubi. Izinto zokuqinisa ezisisiseko zezi zinto zinxulunyaniswa nokusinda (ukutya, isiselo, ukulala, isondo ...) ngelixa ukuqiniswa kwesibini kungathathi hlangothi kokuqala okufumana ixabiso lokuqinisa njengoko zinxulunyaniswa nolunye ushukunyiso esele lunamandla okuqinisa. Ukuqiniswa okuqinisekileyo kuhlala kukhuthazeka kukuqonda komxholo njengento emnandi kwaye kwandise ukubakhona kokuziphatha okuthile abanxulumana nako ngelixa ukuqiniswa okungalunganga kukhulisa ukubakhona kokuziphatha ngokuyeka ukuvuselela okungathandekiyo njengesiphumo sokwenza kwako (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Indawo yogcino: [I-neuropsychology, ukwaluphala] iseti yeendlela zokuqonda, eziguquguqukayo kumntu nomntu, zimiliselwe ukuthelekisa okanye ukubuyisela inkqubo ye-pathological eqhubekayo. Baxhomekeka kwiimpawu ezizodwa kunxibelelwano lwe-neural eziphembelela amava obomi anje ngemfundo, imisebenzi kunye nokuzonwabisa (jonga nako IPassafiume kunye neDi Giacomo, Isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo se-Alzheimer's, 2006).

S

Icandelo leSizwe elingafunyanwanga (SFI): [ulwimi] (okanye isilabhasi okanye iiprotomorphic fillers) bahlala kwindawo echanekileyo kwintetho kwaye mhlawumbi badlala indima "yabamakishi beendawo" zezinto ezisebenzayo (uBottari et al., Ulwakhiwo kulwakhiwo ekufumaneni i-morphology yasimahla yase-Itali, Ngo-1993, icatshulwe kwi: Ripamonti et al., I-Lepi: Ulwimi oluchukumisayo kwasebuntwaneni, 2017)

Uhlalutyo lweNqaku leSemantic: [aphasia] indlela ecinga ukuba ukubuyiselwa kolwazi oluqinisekileyo lwenzeka ngokufikelela kuthungelwano lwe-semantic ngokwe-hypothesis yokuba ukwenziwa kweempawu ze-semantic yethagethi kufuneka kusebenze ekujolise kuko ngokwalo kwinqanaba lalo, ukuququzelela ukubuyiswa kwegama, kunye nefuthe ngokubanzi kwezinye iithagethi ekwabelana ngeempawu ezifanayo zesemantic (jonga iBoscarato kunye neModena kwi UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 44).

Ubunzulu bovavanyo: [manani]: ukukwazi kuvavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ezinophawu oluthile (oluyinyani), umzekelo ubukho be-dyslexia. Ngamanye amagama, linani lezifundo abathi, kuvavanyo, babe nolwalamano oluqinisekileyo xa kuthelekiswa nenani lezifundo ezizezabo; Ukuthatha umzekelo wedyslexia, ubuntununtunu yinxalenye yezifundo ezingafunekiyo kuvavanyo oluthile, xa kuthelekiswa netotali yabo banenyani.
Ukuba sibiza S ubuntununtunu, inani le-dyslexics lichongwe ngokuchanekileyo ngovavanyo (positives yinyani) kunye ne-B inani le-dyslexics engafunyanwanga kuvavanyo (ubuxoki bezinto ezingekhoyo), ke ubuntununtunu bungabonakala njenge-S = A / (A + B) .

Ukubumba: [isayikholojoloji, indlela yokuziphatha] Ukufakwa ngumntu ozama impendulo efunwayo. Inesimo esokomeleza indlela yokuziphatha kwesihloko esisondela ngokuthe gabalala ekufumaneni impendulo (umzekelo, ngokuthe ngcembe sizisa isilwanyana ukuba sicofe i-lever) (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Ukutshintsha kwengqondo: [i-neuropsychology] Ukufuduswa kwengqwalaselo kugxilwe kwinto enye, okanye ukusuka kwesinye isiganeko, ukuya kwesinye, zombini eziqulathwe kwimeko engqonge umxholo (UMarzocchi, uMolin, iPoli, uNonophelo kunye neMetacognition, 2002: 12).

I-Cerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [i-neuropsychology] i-constellation yokuqonda kunye neentsilelo ezichaphazelekayo ezibangelwa sisilonda se-cerebellum. Ukusilela kunokubaninzi kwaye kunokuxhalabisa imimandla emininzi enjengememori yokusebenza, ulwimi, imisebenzi yesigqeba, ukufunda okungagungqiyo kunye nenkqubo, ukujongana nomhlaba, ukulawulwa kwengqwalaselo, umgaqo wokuziphatha kunye nokuziphatha Iswekilepatum kunye nengqondo, 2018).

Isidibanisi sokudakumba: [i-neuropsychology] utshintsho olwenziweyo olunxibelelene nesilonda semicimbi emhlophe edibanisa iindawo ezahlukeneyo zobuchopho (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Isifo se-Balint Holmes: [neuropsychology] I-neuropsychological syndrome ebonakaliswa ngokufana imilenze). Esi sifo sidla ngokunxulunyaniswa nezilonda ezibini zesifo se-parieto-occipital (jonga kwakhona ILadàvas neBerti, iNqaku leNeuropsychology, ka-2014).

Inkqubo yokuNika ingqalelo iSuphavayiza: [imisebenzi yolawulo] UNorman noShawice babonise imodeli eneenkqubo ezimbini ezisebenzayo. Kwimeko yokuqala yinkqubo yokulawula indlela apho zimelwa khona iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokufunda ezifundiweyo, ezikhethwe ekuphenduleni kwisimo sendalo, esekwe kwinqanaba lokuvula ngokuzenzekelayo; Kwimeko yesibini, xa ukhetho oluzenzekelayo alwanelanga ukwenza isenzo esithile okanye isenzo esinjalo asisebenzi kwimeko ethile, imeko Inkqubo yokuLumkisa iSuphavayiza eguqula kwakhona ukusebenza kweendlela ezahlukeneyo zokuziphatha ukukhetha eyona ifanelekileyo ngokuxhomekeke kwiimeko (jonga kwakhona I-Mazzucchi, Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, i-2012).

Somatoagnosia: [i-neuropsychology] ukulahleka kokuqonda komzekelo womzimba (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001)

sound: [ulwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: ukubuyisela isandi esisisithulu ngesandi esihambelanayo. Umzekelo: "bane" "isonka" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology).

Ukucaciswa kovavanyo [i-statistic]: ukubanakho kuvavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ezingenalo uphawu oluthile (izinto ezichaseneyo eziyinyani), umzekelo, ukungabikho kwesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo. Ngamanye amagama, linani lezifundo abathi, kuvavanyo, bafumane iziphumo ezingalunganga xa kuthelekiswa nezifundo ezingenazo kwaphela; Ukuthatha umzekelo wesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo, ukubaluleka kwenxalenye yezifundo ezisempilweni (ngaphandle kwesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo) kuvavanyo oluthile, xa kuthelekiswa netotali yabo banempilo.
Ukuba sibiza ukucaciswa kwe-S, inani leendlela ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo luvavanyo (izinto eziyinyani) kunye ne-B inani leendlela ezingafunyanwanga kuvavanyo (iziphosiso ezingeyonyani), ke ukucaciswa kunokuchazwa njengo-S = A / (A + B) .

stereo: [isayikholojisti] Ngokuphindaphindiweyo ngokuziphatha kwakhona kodlulileyo Zingaba zeentlobo ezahlukeneyo: iimoto, kunxibelelwano olubhaliweyo okanye oluthethwayo, kwimidlalo, ngokuzoba, njl njl. (jonga kwakhona IGalimberti, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2018).

Ukuyeka: [ulwimi] ukutshintshwa kwefonim eqhubekayo kunye engapheliyo (ex: dal per giallo) (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology).

subitizing: [ubuchopho be-neuropsychology] ukukwazi ngokukhawuleza nangokuchanekileyo ukwahlula inani elincinci lezinto (Kaufman et al., Ucalucalulo lweenombolo ezibonakalayo, 1949).

Isulcus glottidis: [ilizwi] lesion ebangelwa kukungeniswa kwembumba yentsimbi yelizwi edala isaka elingena kwisithuba sikaReinke. Kukholelwa ukuba isiphumo sokuvulwa okuzenzekelayo kwe-epidermoid cyst kwiminyaka yokuqala yobomi (cf. IAlbera neRossi, iOtolaryngology, Ngo-2018: 251).

T

Ithiyori yokuqonda yokuFunda kweMultimedia okanye i-CTML: ithiyori [yokufunda] ebona kwangaphambili ubukho beendlela ezimbini zokufunda, enye ibonwa kwaye enye iphicothwa, nganye kuzo inomthamo olinganiselweyo (izinto ezi-3 okanye ezi-4 ngexesha). Ulwazi olwahlukileyo ngakumbi lunokucutshungulwa, kwaye ke ngoko lufundwe, ukuba lahlulwe kuwo omabini amajelo (okubonwayo kunye nokuva) endaweni yejelo elinye (umzekelo, okubhaliweyo kunye nemifanekiso); Oku kubizwa imowudi yesimo
Ukuba, kwelinye icala, sinikezela ngolwazi olufanayo ngendlela engafunekiyo kwiziteshi ezininzi (ezibonakalayo kunye nezicatshulwa zamazwi) endaweni yento enye (umzekelo, i-auditory), le thethi iqikelela ukonakala ekusebenzeni okunxibelelene nokulayishwa kwememori esebenzayo; Oku kubizwa ngokuba sisiphumo sokungafuneki kwakhona (jonga kwakhona UMayer noFiorella, Imigaqo yokuNcitshiswa kweNqubo eNgaphezulu kwiMultimedia yokuFunda: ukuHlanganisa, ukuThengisa, ukuPhinda-phinda, ukuBamba ngokuBanzi kweMigaqo, kunye neMigaqo yeXeshana yeXeshana, 2014)

Uqoqosho lweToken (Inkqubo yokuNyanzeliswa kweMpawu): [isayikholoji, indlela yokuziphatha] Ubuchule bokusebenza kwengqondo obuquka ukuzoba "ikhontrakthi" phakathi kwesifundo nomzali okanye utitshala, emiselwe imigaqo kuyo; Into yokomfuziselo (okanye ithokheni) iyanikezelwa ngenxa yokuziphatha nganye echanekileyo efunwa yile mithetho, ngelixa naliphi na ithokheni liza kususwa okanye lingayi kunikwa kwimeko yolwaphulo-mthetho olufanayo. Ukufikelela kwinani elimiselweyo lamathokheni, ziya kuguqulwa zibe yibhonasi ekuvunyelenwe ngayo ngaphambili (jonga kwakhona I-Vio kunye ne-Spagnoletti, abaThengisayo kunye nabaNtu abaDala ukuQeqesha: ukuQeqeshwa kwabazali, ka-2013).

V

semthethweni: [psychometry] inqanaba apho isixhobo esithile (uvavanyo) silinganisa ngokwenyani inzala. Yenziwe ikakhulu ngokuqinisekiswa komxholo, ukuqinisekiswa komgangatho kunye nokwakhiwa kokusebenza (jonga kwakhona Iinkcukacha-manani zeeNzululwazi zeZimilo, iWelkowitz, iCohen ne-Ewen, ka-2009).

Ixabiso lokuxelwa kwangaphambili: [Statistical] isithuba esingaphambili sovavanyo lokuqikelela ulwalamano lwezifundo ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo ezingezizo Ukuba nesimilo (ezizinto eziyinyani ezizezinye) ngokubhekisele kuzo zonke ezo zinto zinokungalunganga kolo phawu lunye (ubuchasi bokwenyani + ubuxoki bobuxoki). Umzekelo, ukuba besikho phambi kovavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ze-aphasic, ixabiso elingelilo elifanelekileyo lingumlinganiso phakathi kwezifundo ezinempilo ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo ngovavanyo ngokubhekisele kwinani elipheleleyo le-aphas kunye ne-aphasic engalunganga kuvavanyo. zichazwe ngokuchanekileyo njengezisempilweni.
Ukuba sibiza i-VPN ngexabiso eliqinisekileyo, inani elipheleleyo lezifundo ezinempilo kwaye i-B iyonke yezifundo eziphantsi zichazwe ngokungachanekanga njenge-aphasic singabonisa ixabiso elingelihle lokuqikelela ngolu hlobo: VPN = A / (A + B).

Ixabiso elifanelekileyo lokuqikelela: [izibalo] ezinokubakho emva kovavanyo lokuqikelela umyinge wezifundo ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo njengezineempawu (izimvo eziyinyani) ngokubhekisele kwitotali yezo zinto zilungileyo (iimpawu zokwenyani kunye neeposta ezingeyonyani). Umzekelo, ukuba besikho phambi kovavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ze-aphasic, ixabiso elinokubakho kwangaphambili liya kuba ngumlinganiso phakathi kwee-aphasics ezichongiweyo ngokuchanekileyo ngovavanyo ngokuthelekiswa ne-aphasics kunye ne-aphasics eyiyo elungele uvavanyo ngempazamo njenge-aphasic).
Ukuba sibiza i-VPP lixabiso eliqinisekileyo, inani elipheleleyo lezifundo ezi-aphasic ezichanekileyo kunye ne-B iyonke yezifundo ezisempilweni zichongwe ngokuchanekileyo njenge-aphasic emva koko sinokubonisa ixabiso elifanelekileyo ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: VPP = A / (A + B).

Iindlela zokuphelisa (indlela yokunciphisa iingcebiso): [inkqubo ye-neuropsychology] yokwazisa egxile ekunciphiseni okuqhubayo kweengcebiso malunga nolwazi oluya kukhunjulwa, emva kwesigaba sokufunda esifanayo (jonga kwakhona Glisky, Schacter kunye Tulve, Ukufunda kunye nokugcinwa kwesigama esihambelana nekhompyuter kwizigulana ezikhubazeke kwimemori: Indlela yokuphela kwezinto ezikhoyo, ngo-1986).

obanzi: [amanani] umlinganiso wokungafani kwamanqaku ipharamitha ejikeleze intsingiselo yawo; Imilinganiselo yokuba angakanani la manani aphambuka ngokulandelelana ngokwentsingiselo ye-arithmetic (jonga kwakhona I-Vio kunye ne-Spagnoletti, abaThengisayo kunye nabaNtu abaDala ukuQeqesha: ukuQeqeshwa kwabazali, ka-2013).

vergeture: [ilizwi] uxinzelelo lomda osimahla wentambo yelizwi ngokunamathela kwe-mucosa kwi-ligal yelizwi (cf. IAlbera neRossi, iOtolaryngology, Ngo-2018: 251)

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