Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, umdla ekuphazamisweni kolwimi olusisiseko kunye nokuqonda okuqondakalayo okwenzeka rhoqo kuyanda. Ingqungquthela yokuvumelana[1] ka-2019 ikwenze kwacaca oko Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi kuhlala kunxulunyaniswa neentlobo ezahlukeneyo zobunzima bokuqonda. Oku kubandakanya utshintsho kwi imisebenzi yolawulo.

Njengoko kunokuqondwa kwesihloko, uphando esiluthethayo malunga nenkxalabo yokunxulumana phakathi kwemisebenzi yolawulo kunye nokuthathwa kwenqanaba elithile lolwimi kubantwana abasaqala esikolweni.

Uphando

UMarini kunye nabasebenzisanayo baqhube isifundo[2] kwiqela elincinci labantwana, abaphakathi kweminyaka emi-4 neli-5 ubudala, malunga nesiqingatha sabo bafunyaniswa ukuba banengxaki yokufunda ulwimi. Injongo yayikukuphanda le miba ilandelayo:


  • Ukuba abantwana abanengxaki yokuthetha babeneemvavanyo ezisezantsi zomsebenzi kwizikhundla zolawulo
  • Ukuba kwicandelo lokusetyenziswa kolwimi kukho intsilelo ukuqonda okubandakanyiweyo kunye nemveliso
  • Ukuba amanqaku kwiimvavanyo kwimisebenzi yolawulo ahambelana nolwimi kunye nobunzima bokuchaza

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, bonke abantwana bavavanywa inkumbulo yokusebenza ngamazwi, yiyo le Inkumbulo yeMifanekiso ye-WISC-R, kuvavanyo lweinhibition, i.e.inhibition ye-NEPSY-II, kunye novavanyo oluninzi lwe ulwimi kuthathwe kwi-BVL 4 ukuya kuvavanya ubuchule bokucacisa ubuchwephesha kunye nobuchule bobuchwephesha, izakhono ze-lexical zokuqonda kunye nemveliso, izakhono zegrama ukuqonda kunye nemveliso, kunye nezakhono zokubalisa.

Malunga ne hypothesis yesibiniIidatha zinobunkunkqele: ezinye izinto zolwimi zibephantsi kakhulu kubantwana abanengxaki yokuphazamiseka kolwimi (izakhono zokuchaza, ucalucalulo, ukuqonda kunye nokuveliswa kwegrama, ukusetyenziswa kwamagama afanelekileyo kwimveliso yokubaliswa) ngelixa ezinye izinto zomlomo zilingana nezo abantwana abanokuphuhliswa okuqhelekileyo (ukuvelisa kunye nokuqonda okubonakalayo, iimpazamo zokuqonda kwihlabathi xa kusenziwa ibali).

Malunga ne hypothesis yesithathu, imisebenzi yolawulo ephononongiweyo ihambelana nezinto ezininzi zolwimi: I-17% yamanqaku ezakhono ezichazayo achazwe kwimemori yokusebenza; imemori yokusebenza ichaze i-16% yantlukwano yocalucalulo lobugcisa kunye nesithintelo sichaze i-59%; Iipesenti ezingama-38 zokungafani kokuqonda kwegrama zachazwa ngokusebenza kwememori ngelixa ukuthintela kuchaze i-49% yayo; inkumbulo yokusebenza ichaze i-10% yolwazi lwe-lexical, ngelixa i-30% yokugqibela yachazwa ngamanqaku kuvavanyo lokuthintela; okokugqibela, isithintelo sichaze umahluko wama-22% wamanqaku ahambelana nokuphelela kwezi zivakalisi.

Iziphelo

Idatha esandula ukukhankanya ibonisa ubudlelwane obusondeleyo phakathi kokuphazamiseka kolwimi kunye nemisebenzi yolawulo (okanye ubuncinci bezinto). Abantwana abanengxaki zolwimi Bangakwazi ukuba nobunzima ubuncinci ekusebenzeni inkumbulo kunye / okanye kubuchule babo bokuthintela. Ngaphaya koko, ulungelelwaniso olufunyenweyo lubonise ukuba okukhona kugxineka kakhulu kunoko kuchaphazelwa ngamazwi, kokukhona kuya kuba lula ukufumana utshintsho kwimisebenzi yolawulo.

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