Abo balandela le ndawo ngoku bayisebenzisa kuyo, sihlala sithetha nge-ADHD. Sithethe ngayo ukusuka kwinqanaba lokujonga abo bahlala nabantwana kunye nabantu abancinci abanezi mpawu, njengoko sathetha ngayo ukusuka kwinqanaba lokujonga iingcali, ngakumbi ngokubhekisele kwiprofayili ye-neuropsychological.

Omnye umxholo esihlala siwujongile ukuvela kwe-ADHD ngobudala obukhulayo. Eli linqaku lokuba abazali babantwana beze kuthathelwa ingqalelo ziingcali bazibuze kaninzi, kwaye kuyacaca ukuba kunjalo. Amaxesha amaninzi bayothuka kuba benoloyiko lokuba ubomi babo abuyi kuba lula kuba besoyikela ukuba basenokungazimele ngokwaneleyo. Ngethamsanqa, indlela ayihlali inyukela phezulu, nangona ezinye iingxaki zibakho rhoqo.

Ukusuka kweli nqaku, uphando lwezenzululwazi luluncedo kakhulu, ngakumbi ezo zihlalutya iindlela zokuzivelela zabantwana ixesha elide. Kuya kufuneka kuthiwe ukuba ezi zifundo, zinikezwe ubunzima bazo, zinqabile; ngeli xesha, nangona kunjalo, sinethamsanqa kuba siyifumene[1]Unomdla kakhulu Ingeniso yoqoqosho yabantu abadala efunyaniswe ene-ADHD kwiminyaka yokukhula.


Uphando

Njengoko besitshilo, injongo yesifundo yayikuku phanda iziphumo zexesha elide ze-ADHD kwimpumelelo yoqoqosho. Ukulungiselela le njongo uPelham III kunye nabasebenzisana naye[1] phakathi kowe-1987 nowe-1996, bakhetha iqela labantwana abangama-364 abaxilongwa abane-ADHD kunye neqela labantwana abangama-240 abahlakulela ukukhula, abathi emva koko baphononongwa beneminyaka engama-25 ukuphanda imeko yabo yezoqoqosho. Uvavanyo lwenziwa kwakhona kwiminyaka engama-30 yokuvavanya utshintsho ngaphezulu kweminyaka emi-5.

iziphumo

Oko abaphandi bakwazile ukukubona kunomdla kakhulu kwaye iziphumo kufanelekile ukuzikhankanya nganye nganye.

Iqela lokuqala leziphumo ezichaphazelekayo zedatha eqokelelwe kwiminyaka engama-30:

  • Abantu abane-ADHD babenepesenti kwemisebenzi ingaphezulu kwe-standardotypics, leyo yi-22% ngokuchasene ne-13%.
  • Iqela lezifundo ezichongiweyo ene-ADHD sawenza Yena Iipesenti ezingama-37 ngaphantsi kweqela lolawulo.
  • Ngokomyinge, abantu abane-ADHD babekele ecaleni iipesenti ezingama-66 yokonga.
  • Iipesenti ezingama-22 zabantu abane-ADHD bafumana uncedo lwemali oluvela kubazali ngelixa kwi-standardotypics yi-8% kuphela.
  • Ukushiya ikhaya labo, iipesenti ezingama-47 zezifundo ezine-ADHD zazikho wabuyela endlwini yabazali bakhe, xa kuthelekiswa ne-27% yeqela elilawulayo.
  • Okokugqibela, abantu abane-ADHD babuzile uncedo lwezoqoqosho olungxamisekileyo nokuphindaphindwa kabini ngokuthelekiswa nabanye.

Into enomdla kukuba xa kulawulwa kuphela ukuncitshiswa kwesibonakaliso seqela elingaphantsi kwe-ADHD, uninzi lweziphumo luhlale lubalulekile, nokuba kuthathelwa ingqalelo kwiqela elincinci nge-ADHD kodwa ukuyekiswa ngokupheleleyo kweempawu.

Ngaphaya koko, iziphumo ze-ADHD kwinqanaba loqoqosho zazinxibelelene nenqanaba lemfundo. Ngamanye amagama, ukuba phezulu kwenqanaba lemfundo, ukungangqinelani kangako kwezoqoqosho kuye kwaqwalaselwa xa kuthelekiswa nokulindelweyo kubemi "abaqhelekileyo". Nangona kunjalo, kuya kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba isiphumo sasinciphisiwe nje kuphela kodwa asizange sinyamalale, oko kukuthi, phambi kwenqanaba eliphakamileyo lemfundo, umahluko wezoqoqosho uthambekele ekuqhubekeni, nangona kunjalo kwinqanaba elincinci.

Iqela lesibini leziphumo endaweni yoko lalichaphazela utshintsho olubonwe phakathi kweminyaka engama-25 nama-30 ubudala:

  • Kuthelekiswa ne hlala nabazali bakho, ngeli xesha, abantu abane-ADHD bahambe ukusuka kuma-40% ukuya kuma-33% ngelixa utshintsho lwaluphawuleka kakhulu kumgangatho oqhelekileyo osuka kwi-28% ukuya kwi-12%.
  • Kwiqela eline-ADHDukunyuka komvuzo wenyanga kwiminyaka emi-5 yayiyi- $ 285, ngelixa kwiqela lokulawula umvuzo wenyanga ukhule nge- $ 974.
  • Abantu abodwa abane-ADHD, ngaphezulu kweminyaka emi-5, ukonga kunyukile nge- $ 1.508 ngelixa i-standardotypes inyuse ukonga nge- $ 3.722.

Iqela lesithathu lezi ziphumo ezichaphazelekayo kuqikelelo kulo lonke ixesha lokuphila kwedatha edwelisiweyo; eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu yile:

  • Kuthelekiswa nokulawula izifundo zeqela, ezo ezine-ADHD baya kufumana umvuzo kubomi bonke $ 1,1 yezigidi ngaphantsi (2,26 yezigidi esikhundleni se-3,36 yezigidi).

Iqela lokugqibela leziphumo zihlala zihambelana noqikelelo lwedatha esele idwelisiwe, kodwa ngeli xesha ukuqikelela izinto zexabiso ngexesha lokuthatha umhlala phantsi:

  • Uqikelelo lwe ii-asethi eziqokelelweyo ukusuka kubantu abane-ADHD ukuya kwiminyaka yobudala yomhlala-phantsi ukusuka kwi-35% ukuncitshiswa xa kuthelekiswa ne-standardotypics, ukuya kuthi ga kwiipesenti ezingama-64.

Iziphelo

Xa sithetha nge-ADHD sihlala sicinga ngemiphumo ekhawulezileyo yokusebenza kwasesikolweni kunye nokuziphatha, mhlawumbi kunye nobukho bexesha elizayo ezinye iingxaki ezinje ngamanqanaba okukhula koxinzelelo, uxinzelelo okanye ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kweziyobisi (nto leyo, kufanelekile ukuyikhumbula, ayisiyo uhlala ekhona). Kule meko, endaweni yoko, izikhombisi zoqoqosho zithathwe njengereferensi, zifumanisa ukuba i-ADHD ibonisa njani ukubonakaliswa phantse kuyo yonke iparameter (inzuzo, amandla okusindisa, imfuno yoncedo lwezoqoqosho kwabanye ...).

Ngaphambili, sikhankanye ukuba ezi ngxaki zezezimali zazikho kwiqela elincinci le-ADHD kunye neempawu zokuxolelwa; Lo mbandela ubaluleke kakhulu kwaye ufanele ukuthathelwa ingqalelo kakhulu ngoonesi abasebenza kule ndawo. Rhoqo xa kuseti zonyango lwabantu abane-ADHD sijolise ikakhulu kwimiba enxulumene neemvavanyo (ukuphuculwa kokusebenza kwengqondo) kwinto echazwe ngabazali nootitshala (ukuphuculwa kwendlela yokuziphatha). Endaweni yoko, olu phando lusibonisa ukuba iziphumo ze-ADHD zinokubakho kakhulu kangangokuba ukujonga ngokubanzi kubaluleke kakhulu.
Ngokucacileyo ayingabo bonke abantu abane-ADHD ababandakanyekayo kolu phononongo ababeneengxaki zemali; I-15% yabo, enyanisweni, yayinemeko efanelekileyo yezemali ngokwemigangatho ye-US (ukuqaphela nangona kunjalo kwiqela elilawulayo le pesenti inyuke yaya kuma-45% abantwana abaneminyaka engamashumi amathathu ubudala.

Enye into efanelekileyo echaphazela inqanaba lemfundo. Nangona ibubungqina nje beenkcukacha-manani, idatha leyo iphakamisa ukuba inqanaba eliphezulu lokufunda linciphisa isiphumo esibi se-ADHD kwingeniso yezoqoqosho; ngaxeshanye, idatha ibonakalisa ukuba iipesenti ezisi-9 zesampula yabantu abane-ADHD bashiya izifundo zabo kwangoko (ngokuthelekiswa ne-1% kwiqela lolawulo) kwaye bali-14% kubo ukufikelela kwinqanaba lesidanga, esinokulilinganisa nesethu isidanga seminyaka emithathu (ngokuthelekiswa ne-53% yeqela lolawulo).

Unganomdla kwi: Ukuvavanywa kwe-neuropsychological yovavanyo: ngaba kunokwenzeka?

Kuyenzeka ke ngoko ukuba imodareyitha esisiseko "yonyango" kwi-ADHD mayenze ngongenelelo ngoncedo ukunqanda ukuphuma kwesikolo, ukuqinisekisa ukuba abantwana bafumana elona nani liphezulu lesikolo kunye neenjongo zemfundo ngamathuba abo.

Okokugqibela, kubalulekile ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo ezinye iintsilelo zolu phando ezithi zilumkise kutoliko kunye nokuhanjiswa ngokubanzi kweziphumo. Ngaphandle kokungena kwiinkcukacha ezininzi (abo bafuna ukuhlala bejula ngokufunda uphando lokuqala oludibeneyo kwibhayibhile), cinga nje ukuba ezi nkcukacha ziqokelelwe kwisampula yabantu baseMelika, leyo ikwimeko eyahlukileyo eyahlukileyo kwelase-Italiya, zombini ngokubhekisele kum Imeko yesikolo neyunivesithi, zombini ngokunxulumene nendawo yokusebenza.
Nangona kunjalo, le datha ifuna ukubonakaliswa okukhulu, ngakumbi kwiiklinikhi nabaphandi abajongana neli candelo.

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