A -B - C - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - Q - R - S - T - V

A


Indawo yokuhlala ngelizwi: Umkhwa wokuthethaUMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

I-aphasia engekhoyo: [aphasia] I-Aphasia ibonakaliswa yimveliso engekho mgangathweni, izivakalisi ezifutshane, ubunzima bokubhala, i-prosody eyonakalisiweyo; kunokubakho i-agrammatism. Iikhrayitheriya zokwahlula umtyibilikisi kwi-aphasia engadibaniyo nobukho: ubukho be-apraxia yomlomo, ubude besivakalisi, inani lentetho, ubungakanani be-agrammatism okanye isangqala kunye neprosody. Ngokubanzi, ubukho be-apraxia yomlomo kunye nobude besivakalisi ziqwalaselwe ngaphezulu kwayo yonke: ukuba akukho zivakalisi zinamagama amathandathu ubuncinci (ubuncinci isivakalisi esinye kwishumi) ihlala i-aphasia engekho rhabaxa (I-Basso, ukwazi kunye nokufundisa kwakhona i-aphasia, i-2009: 64).

Afemia: [aphasia] Ikota yokuqala yento eza kubizwa kamva aphasia, eyenziwe nguPaul Broca ukuchaza abo bangakwaziyo ukuzithetha ngamazwi nangona benolwazi olululo.


AffricazioneInkqubo [yolwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: Ukufakwa endaweni yesandi esimanyumnyezi kunye nesichazayo. Umzekelo: "i-cagia" ye "ikhaya" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Uhlalutyo lokwahluka (ANOVA): [izibalo, indlela yophando] indlela yeenkcukacha-manani ekuvumela ukuba uthelekise amaqela ahlukeneyo kwinkqubo enye ye-falsation ye-null hypothesis, ngokuthelekisa umahluko phakathi kwamaqela kunye nokwahluka okungafaniyo UBolzani noCanestrari, Logic yovavanyo lwe Statistical, 1995).

I-AnteriorizzazioneInkqubo [yolwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: Ukubuyiselwa kwesandi sangasemva kwesangaphandle. Umzekelo: "tasa" nge "khaya" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology).

aposiopesis: [ulwimi] Ukuphazamiseka ngokukhawuleza kwesivakalisi esingahambeli phambili. Njengomfanekiso ophumelelayo, yenzelwe ukuvumela umfundi okanye umphulaphuli ukuba aqikelele esinye isivakalisi. Kwimeko ye-aphasias, nangona kunjalo, ihlala isisiphumo esingazenzisiyo sokungakwazi ukuqhubeka ngenxa yobunzima ekwakhiweni kwesivakalisi okanye iingxaki zokufumana kwakhona ikota.

Ukufunda ngaphandle kwempazamo: [I-neuropsychology, inkumbulo] indlela yokukhumbula ekuqaleni yaphuhliswa kwizigulana ezinobunzima kakhulu, ezibandakanya ukukhokelwa nokuququzelelwa kokufunda kolwazi ukunqanda impazamo kunye nokukhunjulwa kwinqanaba elibekiweyo (jonga kwakhona Ukufunda ngokungahambekiyo ekubuyiselweni kwengqondo kwengqondo: Uphononongo olugwenxa, 2012; I-Mazzucchi, Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, i-2012).

Apraxia: [i-neuropsychology] ukuphazamiseka kokufezekiswa kweentshukumo ezifundisiweyo, zozibini izimbo zomzimba zokusetyenziswa kwezinto kunye nezimbo zomzimba. Ayisosiphumo sokutshintshwa kwenkqubo yemoto, ukusilela kwengqondo, ukunqongophala kwengqwalaselo okanye intsilelo ekunakanweni kwezinto (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia efanelekileyo: [neuropsychology] apraxia malunga nokusetyenziswa kwento (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-Ideomotor apraxia: [I-neuropsychology] i-apraxia echaphazela uguquko lwezimbo zomzimba ezizodwa, zombini ezingenantsingiselo (ngokuxelisa) kunye nomfuziselo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001)

Iapraxia eyakhayo: [I-neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia ejongene nokufezekiswa komfanekiso wejometri (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Iapraxia yokunxiba: [I-neuropsychology] i-apraxia malunga nokukwazi ukunxiba (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia yamehlo: [neuropsychology] apraxia ebandakanya utshintsho lweentshukumo zamehlo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

NgoMatshi Apraxia: [neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia ekhokelela kukungakwazi ukuthatha amanyathelo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-Optic ataxia: [i-neuropsychology] intswelo yokulungelelanisa okubonakalayo okubandakanya ukufikelela kwiimpazamo ngomlenze ukuya kwinto ebonakalayo. Ihlala ibangelwa kukulimala kobuchopho kwindlela yokubonakalayo dorsal. Ayisixhomekekanga kwinto eyonakeleyo ekufikeleleni kuyo kwaye iqondwe, nangona kunjalo ukunxibelelana nayo kwinqanaba leemoto kunzima (jonga nako ILadàvas neBerti, iNqaku leNeuropsychology, ka-2014).

ukuthembeka (okanye ukuthembeka): [[psychometry] nepropathi yesixhobo sokulinganisa (uvavanyo) esibonisa inqanaba lokuzinza kwamanqaku xa imilinganiselo iphindwaphindwa. Ngamanye amagama, isixelela ukuba luthembekile kangakanani uvavanyo (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Ingqwalaselo ekhethiweyo: [I-neuropsychology ,qwalaselo] icandelo loqwalaselo olunxulumene nokukwazi ukwabiwa kwezixhobo zononophelo kwisikhuselo esifanelekileyo, ukunciphisa uphazamiso lwesikhuthazo esikhoyo kodwa esingafanelekanga komsebenzi oza kwenziwa. Indawo yengqwalaselo ekhethiweyo ibandakanya ukugxila kugxilwe, ingqalelo eyahlulelweyo kunye notshintshiselwano ingqalelo (UVallar et al., Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

B

I-Cactual Bilingualism (okanye iilwimi ezininzi): [ulwimi] xa iilwimi ezimbini zifundwe ngaxeshanye (bona Marini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Iilwimi ezimbini eziLungelelanisiweyo (okanye ubuninzi bezinto) [ulwimi] xa iilwimi ezimbini okanye ezingaphezulu zifundwe ngaphambi kokufikisa kodwa hayi kwisangqa sosapho (umz. ukuhambisa) (bona Marini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Ukusetyenziswa kweelwimi ezimbini (okanye ubuninzi): [ulwimi] xa kusetyenziswa ulwimi olunye okanye ezingaphezulu kusetyenziswa ulwimi lokuqala njengommeli (bona Marini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Ukusetyenziswa kweelwimi ezimbini kwangoko: [ulwimi] xa umntwana evulelekile kulwimi lwesibini emva kolokuqala, kodwa nakweyiphi na imeko phambi kweminyaka yobudala esibhozo (jonga Marini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Ukulandelelana kabini kolungelelwaniso: [ulwimi] xa umntwana evulelekile kulwimi lwesibini emva kolokuqala, kodwa emva kweminyaka esibhozo (jonga Marini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

Iilwimi ezimbini ngaxeshanye: [ulwimi] xa umntwana evulelwe iilwimi ezimbini ukusukela kwiintsuku zokuqala zobomi (jonga Marini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi, 2014: 68)

C

Isigwebo sophatho (okanye ibinzana lenkxaso): ibinzana elisetyenziswa rhoqo elinokuthi lisetyenziselwe ukufumana amagama athile (umzekelo: "Nceda undinike ...").

circumlocution: [ulwimi] ukusebenzisa "ukuguqulwa kwamagama" ukubhekisa kwigama elinokuphinda lifumaneke (rhoqo kakhulu kwi-aphasias). Umzekelo: "oza kusika isonka" athi "akhonto".

Isakhono sokupela: [ukufunda] ukukwazi ukuhlonipha imigaqo-siseko kunye nezivumelwano ezikhoyo kulwimi lwethu lwangoku eziguqula ukuguqulwa kolwimi kumamkelwe okanye kucingwa kulwimi oluvakaliswa ngoographhemes (Tressoldi noCornoldi, 2000, Ibhetri yokuhlola ubuchule bokubhala kunye nopelo kwizikolo ezinyanzelekileyo)

Unxibelelwano olusebenzayo kunye nolunye unxibelelwano (CAA)naluphi na unxibelelwano olubuyisela okanye olonyusa ulwimi ngentetho; yindawo yokuziqhelanisa neklinikhi efuna ukubuyekezela ukukhubazeka kwethutyana okanye ngokusisigxina kwabantu abaneemfuno zonxibelelwano ezinzima (ASHA, 2005, ikhankanywe ku UConstantine, Wakha iincwadi kunye namabali nge-CAA, ngo-2011: 54)

Imeko zokuhambisa izinto: [aphasia] ukuzama ukusondela kwigama ngokuqalisa kobuxoki okanye ubuchwephesha bobuchwephesha. Umzekelo: "la pa ... pasca, pasma, pastia ..." ukuze uthi "pasika" (jonga umzekelo IMarini, iNeurolinguistics Manual, ngo-2018: 143 e I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, ngo-2012)

ingxoxo: [I-neuropsychology] kwimeko yokuphazamiseka kwememori luphawu "oluhle" olucwangcisiweyo njengokuqulunqwa okuzenzekelayo kwengxelo okanye iintshukumo ezingahambelani nemvelaphi okanye eyadlulayo, imeko yangoku okanye yexesha elizayo lesifundo (Ukusuka kwiindevu, G. (1993b). Iipatheni ezahlukeneyo zokuhlangana. Cortex, 29, 567-581) -bulela u-Ilaria Zannoni

ukuhlanganisa: [amanani, indlela yophando] ubudlelwane phakathi kwezinto ezimbini ezinokubangela ukwahluka kwenye. Oku kungaphezulu kokungafaniyo okubini kudityaniswa, kokuqina kokudibana kuya kuba. Ukudityaniswa kwahluka phakathi kwamanqaku u-1 (njengenye inyuka enye, ukunyuka okuphezulu) kunye no -1 (njengenye inyuka enye, kukho ukuhla okungapheliyo kolunye; ngamanqaku ayi-0, endaweni yoko ukungabikho kokunxibelelana ngokupheleleyo phakathi kwezi zinto zombini.
Ubukho bedibaniso, nangona bomelele, abubonisi unxibelelwano lwesizathu phakathi kwezi zinto zimbini (jonga kwakhona I-Welkowits, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Iinkcukacha-manani zeeSayensi zokuZiphatha, 2009).

Ukufika: [aphasia] ubuncinci, i-phonemic kunye / okanye isiphakamiso sobunzima, esinikwe kwimeko yokuba isiguli asikwazi ukubuyisela igama elizimeleyo ngokuzimeleyo (bona, umzekelo, uConro et et., Usebenzisa ulwazi lwefonosheni yokubiza amagama ngokuzenzekelayo ukuxela ukusabela kwento kunyango kunyango lwe-aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] uxinzelelo lokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo ekujoliswe kuso. Oku kwenzeka nge-lesion ye-neurons ekwimvelaphi yee-axons ezifikelela kwisakhiwo ekujolise kuzo, okanye ngokusebenzisa i-axion ye-axons ngokwayo (bona kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Ubuthathaka bengqondo: [I-neuropsychology] indlela ethobekileyo yokunqongophala kwengqondo (jonga kunye nokusilela kwengqondo okanye ukubuyiswa kwengqondo), ebonakaliswe ngokuchanekileyo ngokusebenza kakuhle kwengqondo (IQ phakathi kweminyaka engama-70 nama-50), ubunzima kulungelelwaniso lwentlalo kunye nokubonakala kokusilela ngexesha lokuphuhliswa.

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] uxinzelelo lokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo ekujoliswe kuso. Oku kwenzeka nge-lesion ye-neurons ekwimvelaphi yee-axons ezifikelela kwisakhiwo ekujolise kuzo, okanye ngokusebenzisa i-axion ye-axons ngokwayo (bona kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Ukudibana kwemida: [neuroscience] Ukulahleka okuqhubekekayo kwesakhiwo esithile kunye nomsebenzi we-neuron okanye iqela le-neurons elinokubangela ukunyamalala kwabo (bona kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

mufflingInkqubo [yolwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: Ukutshintsha kwesandi kunye nesithulu esihambelanayo. Umzekelo: "panana" we "banana" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Ukuphambuka okumgangatho (kuthetha ukuphambuka kwesikwere): [izibalo] uqikelelo lokwehluka kwedatha, efunyenwe kwingcambu yesikwere yomahluko. Ibonisa ukuba ingakanani idatha isasazeke kumgangatho ophakathi (i.e.xa baphambuka kumndilili kuyo) kodwa, ngokungafaniyo umahluko, le paramenti iboniswa kwicandelo elinye lomlinganiso njengomndilili (jonga kwakhona I-Welkowits, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Iinkcukacha-manani zeeSayensi zokuZiphatha, 2009).

dysgraphia: [ukufunda] ukubhala ngobunzima, ngaphandle kokuchazwa kukuphazamiseka kwengqondo okanye umda wokuqonda (i-Ajuriagu ter et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °. L'evolution del'écriture et ses hardes, 1979 cit .n UDi Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: [I-neuropsychology] ukuphazamiseka okuchaphazela ukuqondwa kweendlela zokufunda iimoto, ngakumbi ezo ziqwalaselweyo ngexesha lokulingiswa. Ayisixhomekanga kwintsilelo yenkqubo yemoto, ukusilela kwengqondo okanye ukusilela kwengqondo. Yahlukile kwiapraxia kuba igama elithi dyspraxia libhekisa kukuphazamiseka okubonakalayo ngexesha lophuhliso (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-verbal dyspraxia: [ulwimi] Ukuphazamiseka kumbindi kwinkqubo kunye nokufezekiswa kweentshukumo ezichazayo eziyimfuneko ekuvelisweni kwezandi, amagama kunye namagama kunye nombutho wazo ngokulandelelana.I-Chilosis kunye neCerri, i-dalpraxia ye-Verbal, ngo-2009 vd. nayo ISabbadini, iDyspraxia kwiminyaka yobudala bokukhula: uvavanyo kunye neendlela zongenelelo, ngo-2005)

Ukuphazamiseka kolwimi kumlomo wesibini: [ulwimi] nakuphi na ukungafumaneki kolwimi okwenzeka ngexesha lokuphuhliswa, kunye nokuncipha kokuphazamiseka kolwimi ngokwalo, kwizifundo ezinoluhlu olunye okanye ngaphezulu kwezi nkqubo zilandelayo: ukubuyiswa kwengqondo, ukuphazamiseka ngokubanzi, ukukhula ngokubanzi womsebenzi wokuvalela, ukungalunganga okubalulekileyo kwinkcubeko yentlalo (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Umntwana onengxaki yokuthetha. Uvavanyo lonyango lokuthetha kunye nonyango, ECortina, eTurin 2008).

Ulawulo lweHemispheric: [i-neuropsychology] ukuxhaphaka kwe-hemisphere kwenye kolawulo lwengqondo okanye umsebenzi wemoto; ke sisiseko se-hemispheric lateralization. Imizekelo lulwimi, ngokwesiqhelo kunye namandla ashiyekileyo e-hemispheric, kunye neenkqubo ze-visuo-spatial, ene-hemispherical Rule (jonga kwakhona I-Habib, i-Hemispheric Dominance, i-2009, i-EMC - i-Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [ulwimi] uphinda-phindo lwamagama okanye amabinzana amamele, ngaphandle kokuqonda. Yenzeka ngokomzimba ebantwaneni ngokukodwa kwiminyaka engama-2-3 (UMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) kunye nengqondo yabantu abadala, umzekelo kwiiParkinson's.

Isiphumo sokulindelekileyo: [izibalo] zotshintsho lweziphumo zophando ngenxa yokulindela iziphumo ezikhulisiweyo ngumphandi okanye zizifundo zovavanyo ngokwazo. Ichazwe okokuqala ngugqirha wezengqondo uRobert Rosenthal ngoko ke kwezinye iimeko kuthiwa Isiphumo seRosenthal (okanye nokuba Iziphumo zePygmalion o isiprofetho esizalisayo). Yinto ebaluleke kakhulu ukuba uyiqwalasele kuphando apho isiphumo somntu siyinto emiselweyo kwaye ngenxa yesi sizathu isiphumo esi sidla ngokubizwa ngokuba yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwizifundo kwiziphumo zonyango ezingasebenzisi iqela elilawulayo elisebenzayo (okt uzinikeleyo kunyango okanye ngenye indlela yophando) okanye engasebenzisi naliphi na iqela lolawulo.

Iziphumo zeMeko: [ukufunda] bona Ithiyori yenkcubeko yokufunda kweMultimedia

Isiphumo sePygarmion: vedi Iziphumo zokufunda

Isiphumo sendawo: [isayikholoji, amayeza] ukuphuculwa okunikwa ngonyango ngaphandle kweziphumo ezithile kwaye kudityaniswa nokuthenjwa okubekwe kunyango ngokwalo. Iziphumo, ngokufanayo kwiIsiphumo sokulindelwa, ihlala isisithintelo kuphando ngeziphumo zonyango kwaye igcinwe iphantsi kolawulo kusetyenziswa amaqela ezifundo, ezibizwa ngokuba zezazo amaqela olawulo, apho kungekho nyango lwenziwayo okanye olwenziweyo olubuxoki

Isiphumo sokungafani kwakhona: [ukufunda] bona Ithiyori yenkcubeko yokufunda iMultimodal

Isiphumo seRosenthal: vedi Isiphumo sokulindelwa

hemianopia: [i-neuropsychology] ilahleko yombono kwisiqingatha sendawo yokubonakalayo (okanye yenqanaba elinye kwimeko ye quadrantanopia) izilonda ezilandelayo ze-optic chiasm, iphedi ye-optic, i-radiation ye-optical okanye i-cortex ebonakalayo (jonga kwakhona ILadàvas neBerti, iNqaku leNeuropsychology, ka-2014)

Ukuzonwabisa kwendawo (bona ukuyekelela)

mazwi: [ulwimi] ngokuxhomekeka kwisikhombisi esisetyenzisiweyo, inokuchazwa ngokuthi "ukuphuma kwesandi phakathi kokuphumla okubambekayo (okugcwele okanye okungenanto) okuhlala ubuncinci imizuzwana emibini" (isikhombisi sendlela yokulinganisa), "ibhloko yeengcinga eziqinisekileyo, okanye icebo elilula okanye elinzima" ( Isinxibelelanisi semantic), "isivakalisi esikhulu esilandelwa luchungechunge lwababumbileyo abenziwe kakuhle" (igrama yomgaqo). (UMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Chwetheza impazamo yam: [I-psychometry] iyala into engeyonyani xa iyinyani le.
Umzekelo: umphandi ucinga ukuba unyango olutsha lolwimi luyaziphucula iinkalo zephonono ngcono kunonyango lwesiqhelo; emva kokuvavanya i-hypothesis, iyala i-H0 (i.e. ukuba iindlela ezimbini zonyango zilingana) kwaye yamkela i-H1 (i.e. ukuba unyango olutsha lungcono) kodwa ngokwenyani zonyango ezimbini zinika iziphumo ezifanayo kwaye umahluko ofunyenweyo unxulumene iimpazamo zendlela yokusebenza okanye isiphumo sethuba (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Uhlobo lweempazamo zohlobo lwesibini: [I-psychometry] yamkela into engekhoyo xa oku kububuxoki.
Umzekelo: umphandi ucinga ukuba unyango olutsha lolwimi luphucula iinkalo zephonono ngcono kunonyango lwesiqhelo; emva kokuvavanya i-hypothesis, yamkela i-H0 (i.e. ukuba iindlela ezimbini zonyango zilingana) kwaye iyala i-H1 (i.e ukuba unyango olutsha lungcono) kodwa ngokwenyani zonyango ezimbini zinika iziphumo ezahlukeneyo. Ukunqongophala kweziphumo kule meko, kwelinye icala, kuya kuxhomekeka kwiimpazamo zendlela, amanqaku atshintshisanayo omncinci ngenxa yesiphumo secala, okanye ngenxa yamandla aphantsi ovavanyo lobalo (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

F

Iinyani ze-arithmetic: [iMathematics] Ziziphumo zenkqubo ye-arithmetic ekufuneka ingabalwa, kodwa sele ibanjelwe kwimemori. Umzekelo ukuphinda-phinda iitafile kunye nezibalo ezilula kunye nokuzithoba. (IPoli, iMolin, uLusangeli noCornoldi, IMemocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Iifilm: [i-aphasia] ikhefu epheleleyo eyenziwe zizandi, iiphoneemes, iisilayidi okanye iziqwenga zamagama. Bafumaneka ubukhulu becala kubuqali bobuxoki. "Ewe namhlanje lusuku oluhle" (jonga umzekelo IMarini, iNeurolinguistics Manual, ngo-2018: 143)

phonology: [ulwimi] Uqeqesho olufundisisa ubuchule befonetiki enokuthi isithethi sibe nalo ngolwimi lwenkobe, oko kukuthi, inkqubo ephuculayo kwiminyaka yobomi bomntu kwaye apho kusekwe khona umahluko phakathi kwezandi ezahlula intsingiselo kunye nezandi musa ukwahlula (Nespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Ibinzana elinombala: [ulwimi] Indlela yokudibanisa umbala owahlukileyo kunye nesixhobo ngasinye sesivakalisi (inqaku, umxholo, isenzi ...). Inokusetyenziselwa zombini izivakalisi ezibhaliweyo kunye nezo zenziwe ngee-pictographs (bona, umzekelo, I-AA VV, i-protocol yonyango lwentetho ye-De Filippis, ka-2006).

I-FricazioneInkqubo [yolwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: ukutshintshwa kwesandi esidibanisayo okanye esidibeneyo ngesiphazamiso. Umzekelo: "i-" fasso "ye" nyaniso "(cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Functors: [ulwimi] vd. Vula kwaye uvale amagama eklasi

Imisebenzi yolawulo: [I-neuropsychology] iseti entsonkothileyo yemisebenzi yokuqonda nokucwangciswa kokuziphatha ngokuzinikela, eyimfuneko kwimisebenzi engezizo ezenzekelayo efuna ukonganyelwa okubalulekileyo. inqaku lethu kwimisebenzi yolawulo; UGrossi kunye noTrojano, iNeuropsychology yeeLobes zangaphambili, 2013).

G

endizaInkqubo [yolwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: Ukufakwa endaweni kweekhonsonon. Umzekelo: "foia" ngo "gqabi" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology)

Isenzo seBatonicUhlobo lokuthambekela apho izandla zishukuma ukusuka phezulu ziye ezantsi ukumakisha uluhlu lwamagama okanye amagama esivakalisi (kwindima yezimbo zomzimba ezibonakalayo. Isiseko sonyango lokuthetha kwinqanaba lokukhula, iphe. 234)

Ukulimala kobuchopho obuBi kakhulu: [I-neurology]: "Ukulimala kwengqondo okufunyenwe ngokuqatha" (GCA) kubhekisele kumonakalo wobuchopho, ngenxa yoxinzelelo lwe-cranioencephalic okanye ezinye izizathu (ubuchopho be-brain, hemorrhage, njl.njl.), njengokuchaza kwemeko yomhlaza (GCS = / < I-8 ngaphezulu kweeyure ezingama-24), kunye ne-sensorimotor, ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo kunye nokuziphatha, okukhokelela ekukhubazekeni okukhulu (cf. INkomfa yoGunyaziso: Ukuziqhelanisa nokulungileyo kweKlinikhi yokuBuyiselwa esiBhedlela kwabantu abanobunzima obufumeneyo).

Iqela lolawulo: [indlela yophando] kuphando apho ifundisisa khona iziphumo zokwahluka okuzimeleyo kumaqela ezifundo, umzekelo unyango, isampuli ihlala yahlulwe yangamaqela amabini ubuncinci: iqela lovavanyo, olufumana unyango phantsi kophando (okwahlukileyo ezizimeleyo), kunye neqela lolawulo, ekuthi endaweni yoko alufumani naluphi na unyango okanye lufumane enye engenye (ngenxa yoko alunanzwanga yimpembelelo yokwahluka okuzimeleyo). Iqela lolawulo lelinye apho iziphumo zonyango zithelekiswa kwiqela lovavanyo ukunciphisa impembelelo yokhetho olunokwenzeka (bona kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990).

I

Ukuphazamiseka kwimoto eyaziwayo: [I-neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] into eyenzeka ngexesha elinye lokuqhutywa komsebenzi weemoto (umzekelo ukuhamba) kunye nomsebenzi wengqondo (umzekelo, onke amagama aqala ngoonobumba abanikiweyo); kwezi meko kunokwenzeka ukubona unciphiso kwimoto, ingqondo okanye ukusebenza zombini. Ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo kwimoto kufundwa ngakumbi kwimeko yesifo se-sclerosis ezininzi njengoko kusenzeka rhoqo kwaye kuphawuleka ngakumbi kunokwabantu abaphilile. (Bona iRuggieri et al., 2018, Imephu yesophawu ye-lesion yokuphazamiseka kwengqondo-yasemva kokuphazamiseka kwisifo sokuqina kwesifo).

Ukudityaniswa kwemodyuli: [I-neuropsychology] into enento yokudibanisa ulwazi olusuka kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zemvakalelo kwimbono enye. Ngokuchanekileyo, umbono oquka unxibelelwano phakathi kweendlela ezimbini okanye ezingafaniyo zemvakalelo (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Ithuba lokungqina [psychometry] luluhlu lwamaxabiso phakathi kwemida emibini (ngezantsi nangaphezulu) ngaphakathi apho kufumaneka iparameter ethile (ngokuzithemba).
Umzekelo: ukuba emva kokuba ndikhuphe i-WAIS-IV i-IQ ye-102 kuvela isithuba sokuzithemba malunga ne-95% phakathi kwe-97 ne-107, oku kuthetha ukuba kuma-95% amathuba okuba i-IQ yinyani ye-IQ yomntu ophononongiweyo lixabiso eliphakathi kwe-97 kunye ne- 107 (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Enye into: [I-psychometry] ikwaboniswa nge-H1. Kwindawo yophando yintsingiselo ye-hypothesis eyenziwe ngumphandi nenjongo yokuvavanywa.
Ukuba, umzekelo, umphandi uqinisekile ukuba lolunye unyango lunika iziphumo ezahlukileyo kunendlela eqhelekileyo, uH1 uya kubonisa ubukho phakathi kwala mahluko mabini.
Kukwachazwa njengokuya kuthi ga ngoku ngokuba yi-null hypothesis ibubuxoki, ikwacacisa amaxabiso ngexabiso elinikiweyo lenzala (jonga nako UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

I-hypothesis ye-Null: [I-psychometry] ikwaboniswa nge-H0, kwicandelo lophando libhekisa kwimibono ethathwa njengeyinyani xa kungekho bungqina buchasene obunokubuphikisa.
Ukuba, umzekelo, yenzelwe ukubonisa ukuba unyango lunye lusebenza ngakumbi kunolunye, i-H0 iyakumela u-hypothesis wokuba akukho mahluko phakathi kolu nyango limbini.
Ikwachazwa njengeyona nto apho ixabiso leparadesi eluntwini lacaciswa okanye umahluko olindelekileyo (oqhele ukuhambelana no-zero) phakathi kweparameter yabantu ababini (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

L

Ubungakanani obuPhakathi beNkcazo (i-LME): [[ulwimi] Yaziswa nguBrown ngo-1973, ingcaciso yexesha elichanekileyo lesivakalisi ibonisa umndilili wamagama okanye isimilo esiveliswe sisithethi kwisampula- ihlala - izivakalisi ezili-100 (jonga ingxelo). Yenye yezalathiso zobuchule bolwimi kwimveliso (bona, uBrown, Ulwimi lokuqala, ngo-1973).

M

Ithiyori yeMaphu: [aphasia] Hypothesis ngokokuba abaguli bamadrammatic, ngelixa begcina ubuchule obuhle be-syntactic, baba nobunzima ekuboneleleni iindima eziyimigangatho yabantu abasebenza isivakalisi kwisakhiwo sempikiswano kwisimo sesenzi (jonga iBoscarato neModena kwi UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 57)

Unyango lweMelodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): [i-aphasia] indlela yokuvuselela i-aphasia exhaphaza iinkalo ze-melodic zentetho (isiculo kunye nesingqisho) ngokuvuma (jonga uNorton et al., Unyango lweMelodic, 2009)

Inkumbulo yokusebenza: [neuropsychology] Inkqubo ekuvumela ukuba ugcine okwethutyana ulwazi lokuyilawula okanye uyilawule (cf. I-Baddeley kunye neHitch, Imemori yokuSebenza, 1974). Jonga nenqaku lethu Yintoni imemori yokusebenza.

Inkumbulo yokujonga: [i-neuropsychology] ukukhumbula ukwenza isenzo emva kokucwangcisa (bona umzekelo, URouleau et al. Ukuchaphazeleka okukhunjulwayo kwememori kwisifo se-sclerosis ezininzi: uphononongo, ngo-2017). Jonga inqaku lethu elibanzi Imemori yokujonga kwisifo sokuqina kwesifo esiqhelekileyo

Meta-analysis: [izibalo] iindidi zohlalutyo lweenkcukacha-manani ezivumela ukushwankathela iziphumo zezifundo ezahlukeneyo ngokubhekisele kwisihloko esifanayo, ukuzama ukunciphisa iziphumo zemithombo yokuguquguquka kweziphumo zezifundo ezizodwa, zenza nakuphi na ukuvela rhoqo (jonga nako I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Metacognition: Isigama sibhekisa kulwazi malunga nolwazi lwakho kunye, ngaxeshanye, iinkqubo kunye nezicwangciso ezililawulayo (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

I-Metafonologia: ukukwazi ukuthelekisa, icandelo kunye nokucalucalula amagama aziswe ngomlomo kwisiseko sefonological yazo (Ubhishophu kunye nokubhabha kweqhwa, ukudodobala koqoqosho kunye nokukhubazeka kolwimi oluthile: ezifanayo okanye ezahlukileyo?)

lwavuka (bona Ukubumba)

Ukugxothwa kunye ne-inflectional morphemes: i-morivmes evela kokunye etshintsha intsingiselo yesiseko (umz. Cas + in + a); infomational morphemes zitshintsha kuphela iindidi zamagama athobayo. Umzekelo, isini okanye inombolo: Cas + a (cf. UMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

ukuyekelela: [I-neuropsychology] ye-neuropsychological syndrome, ihlala ibangelwa kukulimala kwengqondo, okubandakanya ukusilela kokuqonda indawo. Umntu ozisa ezi mpawu ubonakalisa ubunzima ekuphandweni kwendawo yesivumelwano malunga nokulimala kwengqondo, ukungazi kakuhle imeko ekhoyo kwinxalenye yesithuba somntu (ngesiqhelo ngaphakathi), ngokubhekele phaya okanye ngokwangaphandle (jonga kwinqaku lethu Ukungahoyi: icala elimnyama lehlabathi)

Ukungakhathalelwa kwendawo (bona ukuyekelela)

Iigrons neurons: [I-neuroscience] udidi lwee-neurons ezenziwa zenziwa zombini xa umntu esenza isenzo kwaye xa umntu elawula isenzo esinye esenziweyo sesinye isifundo (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [ulwimi] kusetyenziswa igama elinye kwingxelo okanye isicelo esiya kufuna isivakalisi sonke. Yinto eqhelekileyo ukukhula kolwimi emntwaneni. Ex: "cua" ka "ndifuna amanzi".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] igama liveliswe ngokungalunganga ngokubhekisele kwithagethi. IParaphasia inokuba sisandi (umzekelo: "libbium" ye "ncwadi") okanye isemantic ("incwadana yokubhala" ye "ncwadi"). (bona umzekelo IMarini, iNeurolinguistics Manual, ngo-2018: 143)

Vula kwaye uvale amagama eklasi: [ulwimi] amagama eklasi evulekileyo (okanye Umxholo wamagama) Izibizo, izichazi ezifanelekileyo, izihlomelo ezilandelelanayo kunye nezihlomelo eziphelisa u-in -mente; amagama eklasi avaliweyo (okanye Umsebenzi wamagama o functors) Izimelabizo, izichazi ezingafanelekanga, amanqaku, izihlanganisi, izincedisi kunye neesenzi zemodyuli. Ngelixa umxholo wamagama uhambisa iikhonsepthi ze-semantic, abonwabisi baveza ubudlelwane phakathi kwamagama.

Uhlalutyo lweeNxalenye zeFonotiki: [aphasia] indlela ecetywayo ULeonard, uRochon noLaird (ngo-2008) equlathe ukwazisa isigulana ngomfanekiso embindini wephepha lesicelo sokubuyiswa kwegama elichongiweyo. Nokuba waphumelela kangakanani na, isigulana sicelwa ukuba sibuyisele kwakhona isigama esinemvano-siphelo, ifonim yokuqala, elinye igama eliqala ngoonobumba abafanayo kunye nenani lamagama. (jonga iBoscarato kunye neModena kwi UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 47)

Neuronal plastikiity: [I-neuropsychology] Amathuba okuba iiseli zemithambo zikwazi ukwenza eminye imisebenzi xa kufanelekile. (UGollin, uFerrari, uPeruzzi, Indawo yokuzivocavoca ngengqondo, 2007: 15).

Amandla ovavanyo lwe Statist: [isayikholojikelele] kuthetha ukuba kuyakwenqatshwa i-null hypothesis, ngovavanyo lwamanani, xa oku kuyinyani.
Umzekelo: ukuba uvavanyo oluthile olunesayizi ethile yesampula inamandla okubala angama-80%, oku kuthetha ukuba kukho amathuba angama-80% okufumana idatha esenza ukuba siyenqabe i-null hypothesis, ngokuxhomekeka ekubeni oku bubuxoki (jonga kwakhona UWeltkovitz, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Izibalo zezeNzululwazi zeZokuziphatha, ngo-2009).

Inkqubo yenkqubo: [ulwimi] Ukufakwa kwenye ifonim kunye nenye, ngelixa ulungelelwaniso lwesilabhasi ihlala ingaguqukanga (bona, umzekelo, ISantoro, iPanero kunye neCianetti, ezona zibini zincinci 1, 2011).

Inkqubo yolwakhiwo: [ulwimi] Utshintsho lwendlela yesilabhasi yegama, kunye notshintsho kubuninzi bezinto kunye nolungelelaniso lweekhonsonityhi ezibunjiweyo (bona umzekelo, ISantoro, iPanero kunye neCianetti, ezona zibini zincinci 1, 2011)

Isiprofetho esizalisekayo: vedi Isiphumo sokulindelwa

Ukukhuthaza ukusebenza ngempumelelo konxibelelwano kwe-Aphasics (PACE) : [aphasia] indlela engaginyisi mathe kunyango lwe-aphasia apho ugqirha othethayo achonga zonke iindlela ezinokubakho zokuqinisekisa ukomelela konxibelelwano lwesigulana (jonga ukujongwa ngamaXilongo ku UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 105 e I-Charlemagne, indlela yePragmatic kunyango lwe-aphasia. Ukusuka kwiimodeli zokubonisa amandla kwiindlela zePACE, ngo-2002)

Amanqaku anobunzima: [psychometry] Utshintsho lwe-arithmetic lwenqaku le-Z (elinentsingiselo engu-0 kunye nomgangatho oqhelekileyo wokuphambuka) ube manqaku anentsingiselo ye-1 kunye nokuphambuka okumgangatho 10. Xa kuthelekiswa nenqaku le-Z ngokwahlukileyo ngokubonakala kodwa iipropathi zihlala zifana. Uncedo lwayo lokwenza amanqaku ngexabiso elingelulo ngendlela engathandekiyo, nokuba iphantsi kakhulu kumndilili. Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezahlukeneyo ezifana, umzekelo, NEPSY-II.

Inqaku lesikali: [Psychometry] Utshintsho lwe-arithmetic lwenqaku le-Z (elinentsingiselo engu-0 kunye nomgangatho oqhelekileyo wokuphambuka) ube manqaku anentsingiselo ye-1 kunye nokuphambuka komgangatho 10. Xa kuthelekiswa nenqaku le-Z ngokwahlukileyo ngokubonakala kodwa iipropathi zihlala zifana. Uncedo lwayo lokwenza amanqaku ngexabiso elingelulo ngendlela engathandekiyo, nokuba iphantsi kakhulu kumndilili. Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezahlukeneyo ezifana, umzekelo, iWISC-IV.

Amanqaku oMgangatho: [Psychometry] amanqaku asetyenziswe kwiimvavanyo ezininzi (umzekelo kwi BVN 5-11) ezineepropathi ezifanayo ne-IQ (jonga kwanezifundo zeengqondo).

Amanqaku e-T (ubukhulu beT): [psychometry] Utshintsho lwe-arithmetic lwenqaku le-Z (elinentsingiselo engu-0 kunye nophambuko oluqhelekileyo 1) lube luphawu olunama-50 kunye nokuphambuka okumgangatho 10. Xa kuthelekiswa nenqaku le-Z ngokwahlukileyo ngokubonakala kodwa iipropathi zihlala zifana. Uncedo lwayo kukuba yenza ukubakho kwenqaku ngexabiso elingelulo ngokungathandekiyo, nokuba iphantsi kakhulu kumndilili (jonga kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990). Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezahlukeneyo ezifana, umzekelo Inqaba yaseLondon.

Inqaku le-Z (amanqaku omgangatho): [izibalo, i-psychometry] amanqaku abonisa ukuba lingakanani ixabiso eliphambukayo kumndilili olindelekileyo, uthelekisa ngokuthelekiso kumgangatho. Amanqaku athetha u-0 kunye nophambuko oluqhelekileyo 1 ukuze inqanaba le-0 libonakalise ixabiso ngokuhambelana nokulindelweyo, amanqaku aphezulu kuno-0 abonisa ixabiso elingaphezulu komndilili kunye nenqaku elingaphantsi ko-0 libonisa ixabiso elisezantsi kunomndilili. Ifunyenwe ngokukhupha ixabiso eliphakathi kwixabiso elibonisiweyo kunye nokwahlula yonke into ngokwahluka kumgangatho (Ixabiso elibonisiweyo - eendaba) / ukutenxa okuqhelekileyo (jonga kwakhona I-Welkowits, uCohen kunye no-Ewen, Iinkcukacha-manani zeeSayensi zokuZiphatha, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (jonga hemianopia)

R

Isilingo esingaLawulwa eLangeni (i-RCT): [Indlela yophando] ichazwa njengohlobo “lokwenyani” lovavanyo lophando kuba ivumela ulawulo lomvavanyi olupheleleyo ngokuchaseneyo komdla. Inika ukuba izifundo ezenziwa kuzo uphando zabiwe ngokungacwangciswanga (zilandelelana) kwiqela lovavanyo okanye kwiqela lolawulo ukwenzela ukuba wonke umntu abe nethuba lokuphela kwelinye okanye kwelinye (amaqela angalunganga), oko kunciphisa amathuba okuba amaqela ahlukile kakhulu omnye komnye, anokuphosa ukuthandabuza kwiziphumo ezinokubakho zokutshintsha komdla (jonga kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990).

Umgangatho wepesenti: [izibalo, i-psychometry] ukubekwa emgangathweni ngokusekwe kwindawo ezifundayo ekuhanjisweni kwamanqaku kwinqanaba elisusela kwi-1 ukuya kwi-99. Zisetyenziswa kwiimvavanyo ezininzi, umzekelo Ibhetri yase-Italiyane ye-ADHD (jonga kwakhona I-Ercolani, iAreni neMannetti, Uphando kwi Psychology, 1990).

Unyango lwe-Reality Oriental Therapy (ROT): [I-neuropsychology] Unyango olunenjongo ephambili kukuphucula ukujongisisa ixesha, endaweni kunye nokuzibhekisa ngokwakho. Kukho iROT esesikweni (ichazwe kakuhle intlanganiso yeentlanganiso) kunye neROT engekho mthethweni, ephunyezwa ngabasebenzi abangaqeqeshwanga imini yonke. (UGollin, uFerrari, uPeruzzi, Indawo yokuzivocavoca ngengqondo, 2007: 13)

Unyango oluncitshisiweyo lwe-Syntax (REST): [aphasia] Unyango lwezigulasic agasmic abaguli, endaweni yokugxila kwimveliso yezivakalisi ezichanekileyo ezichazayo, bavumela ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezenziwe lula ezifana nezo zisetyenziswe colloqu ngokukhethekileyo ngezifundo eziqhelekileyo (ezicetyiswa ngu Springer et al., 2000; vd. IBass, Yazi kwaye uphinde ufundise i-aphasia, ngo-2009: 35)

Uhlengahlengiso [unyango lwentetho]: Ubuchule obuquka ukuphindaphinda into ethethwe ngumnxibelelanisi ishiye intsingiselo ingaguqukanga kodwa ukubonelela ngemodeli efanelekileyo ngokudibanisa igama elilahlekileyo okanye ukufaka igama endaweni efanelekileyo kunye nelinye elifanelekileyo (ukufumana iinkcukacha ezithe vetshe jonga "ubuchule bongenelelo" ku Isiseko sonyango lokuthetha kwinqanaba lokukhula, iphe. 235)

ukuqinisa: [isayikholoji, isimilo] isisonyusi esonyusa okanye esinciphisa ukubonakala kwendlela yokuziphatha ethile. Ukuqiniswa kwahlulahlulwe ngokweendidi ezine eziphambili: eziziiprayimari, ezesibini (okanye eziphantsi komgangatho), ukuqiniswa okuhle nokubi. Izinto zokuqinisa ezisisiseko zezi zinto zinxulunyaniswa nokusinda (ukutya, isiselo, ukulala, isondo ...) ngelixa ukuqiniswa kwesibini kungathathi hlangothi kokuqala okufumana ixabiso lokuqinisa njengoko zinxulunyaniswa nolunye ushukunyiso esele lunamandla okuqinisa. Ukuqiniswa okuqinisekileyo kuhlala kukhuthazeka kukuqonda komxholo njengento emnandi kwaye kwandise ukubakhona kokuziphatha okuthile abanxulumana nako ngelixa ukuqiniswa okungalunganga kukhulisa ukubakhona kokuziphatha ngokuyeka ukuvuselela okungathandekiyo njengesiphumo sokwenza kwako (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Indawo yogcino: [I-neuropsychology, ukwaluphala] iseti yeendlela zokuqonda, eziguquguqukayo kumntu nomntu, zimiliselwe ukuthelekisa okanye ukubuyisela inkqubo ye-pathological eqhubekayo. Baxhomekeka kwiimpawu ezizodwa kunxibelelwano lwe-neural eziphembelela amava obomi anje ngemfundo, imisebenzi kunye nokuzonwabisa (jonga nako IPassafiume kunye neDi Giacomo, Isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo se-Alzheimer's, 2006).

S

Icandelo leSizwe elingafunyanwanga (SFI): [ulwimi] (okanye isilabhabha, okanye iiproshomorphemic fillers) zimi kwindawo esisigxina kwisiteyitimenti kwaye mhlawumbi ziyafezekisa indima "yamanqaku isikhundla" yezinto ezisebenzayo (Bottari et al., Ukuthotyelwa kolwakhiwo ekufumaneni i-morphology yasimahla yase-Itali, Ngo-1993, icatshulwe kwi: Ripamonti et al., I-Lepi: Ulwimi oluchukumisayo kwasebuntwaneni, 2017)

Uhlalutyo lweNqaku leSemantic: [aphasia] indlela ecinga ukuba ukubuyiswa kolwazi oluqinisekileyo lwenzeka ngokufikelela kuthungelwano lwe-semantic ngokwe-hypothesis yokuba ukusebenza kweempawu ze-semantic zenjongo kufuneka kusebenze kwithagethi ngokwayo ngaphezulu komgangatho wayo, ukuqhuba ukubuyiswa kwelizwi, kunye nefuthe lokujolisa kwezinye izinto ekujoliswe kuzo ezabelana ngeempawu ezifanayo zentsomi (jonga iBoscarato neModena kwi UFlosi, uCharlemagne kunye neRossetto, LUkulungiswa ngokutsha komntu one-aphasia, 2013: 44).

Ubunzulu bovavanyo: [izibalo]: amandla ovavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ezinesimo esithile (isimilo sokwenyani), umzekelo ubukho be-dyslexia. Ngamanye amagama, luludwe lwezifundo abathi, ngovavanyo, bavavanye ukuba nenani elibonakalayo xa kuthelekiswa itotali yezifundo abanayo; Ukuthatha umzekelo we-dyslexia kwakhona, uvakalelo luxabiso lwezifundo abathi kuvavanyo oluthile dyslexic, xa kuthelekiswa itotali yokoqobo.
Ukuba sibiza S ubuntununtunu, inani le-dyslexics lichongwe ngokuchanekileyo ngovavanyo (positives yinyani) kunye ne-B inani le-dyslexics engafunyanwanga kuvavanyo (ubuxoki bezinto ezingekhoyo), ke ubuntununtunu bungabonakala njenge-S = A / (A + B) .

Ukubumba: [isayikholojoloji, indlela yokuziphatha] Ukufakwa ngumntu ozama impendulo efunwayo. Inesimo esokomeleza indlela yokuziphatha kwesihloko esisondela ngokuthe gabalala ekufumaneni impendulo (umzekelo, ngokuthe ngcembe sizisa isilwanyana ukuba sicofe i-lever) (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Ukutshintsha kwengqondo: [I-neuropsychology] Ukutshintsha kwengqwalaselo kugxilwe kwinto enye, okanye umcimbi, uye kwelinye, zombini ziqulathwe kwimeko engqonge isifundo (UMarzocchi, uMolin, iPoli, uNonophelo kunye neMetacognition, 2002: 12).

I-Cerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [i-neuropsychology] ukuvumisa kwengqondo kwengqondo kunye neziphene ezinokubangela isiphumo se-lesion ye-cerebellum. Ukusilela kunokuba kuninzi kwaye kuxhalabe kwimimandla emininzi enje ngememori yokusebenza, ulwimi, imisebenzi elawulayo, ukungafakwanga kunye nokufunda kwenkqubo, ukulungiswa kwesithuba, ukulawulwa kwengqwalaselo, ulawulo oluhambelana nokuziphatha (i-Schmahmann, Iswekilepatum kunye nengqondo, 2018).

Isidibanisi sokudakumba: [i-neuropsychology] ulungelelwaniso lwengqondo olunxulumene nesibindi semithwalo yento emhlophe edibanisa iindawo ezahlukeneyo zobuchopho (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001).

Isifo se-Balint Holmes: [neuropsychology] I-neuropsychological syndrome ebonakaliswa ngokufana imilenze). Esi sifo sidla ngokunxulunyaniswa nezilonda ezibini zesifo se-parieto-occipital (jonga kwakhona ILadàvas neBerti, iNqaku leNeuropsychology, ka-2014).

Inkqubo yokuNika ingqalelo iSuphavayiza: [imisebenzi yolawulo] UNorman noShawice babonise imodeli eneenkqubo ezimbini ezisebenzayo. Kwimeko yokuqala yinkqubo yokulawula indlela apho zimelwa khona iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokufunda ezifundiweyo, ezikhethwe ekuphenduleni kwisimo sendalo, esekwe kwinqanaba lokuvula ngokuzenzekelayo; Kwimeko yesibini, xa ukhetho oluzenzekelayo alwanelanga ukwenza isenzo esithile okanye isenzo esinjalo asisebenzi kwimeko ethile, imeko Inkqubo yokuLumkisa iSuphavayiza eguqula kwakhona ukusebenza kweendlela ezahlukeneyo zokuziphatha ukukhetha eyona ifanelekileyo ngokuxhomekeke kwiimeko (jonga kwakhona I-Mazzucchi, Ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, i-2012).

Somatoagnosia: [i-neuropsychology] ukulahleka kokuqonda komzekelo womzimba (jonga kwakhona I-Doron, iParot kunye neDel Miglio, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2001)

soundInkqubo [yolwimi] Inkqubo yenkqubo: Ukufakwa endaweni yesandi esisithulu ngesandi esihambelanayo. Umzekelo: "bane" ngo "sonka" (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology).

Ukucaciswa kovavanyo [izibalo]: amandla ovavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ezingenazimpawu ezithile (izinto eziyinyani), umzekelo ukungabikho kwengqondo. Ngamanye amagama, luludwe lwezifundo abathi ngovavanyo lungaqinisekanga ukuba lilo elibonakalayo xa kuthelekiswa itotali yezifundo ezingabinayo ngokwenene; Ukuthatha umzekelo wokuwohloka komqondo kwakhona, ukucaciswa sisiqingatha sezifundo ezinempilo (ngaphandle kwesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo) kuvavanyo oluthile, kuthelekiswa itotali yabo baphilile ngokwenene.
Ukuba sibiza ukucaciswa kwe-S, inani leendlela ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo luvavanyo (izinto eziyinyani) kunye ne-B inani leendlela ezingafunyanwanga kuvavanyo (iziphosiso ezingeyonyani), ke ukucaciswa kunokuchazwa njengo-S = A / (A + B) .

stereo: [isayikholojisti] Ngokuphindaphindiweyo ngokuziphatha kwakhona kodlulileyo Zingaba zeentlobo ezahlukeneyo: iimoto, kunxibelelwano olubhaliweyo okanye oluthethwayo, kwimidlalo, ngokuzoba, njl njl. (jonga kwakhona Galimberti, Isichazi-magama esitsha seS Psychology, 2018).

Ukuyeka: [ulwimi] ukutshintshwa kwefonim eqhubekayo kunye engapheliyo (ex: dal per giallo) (cf. Inqaku lethu kwiFonetiki kunye neFonology).

subitizing: [ubuchopho be-neuropsychology] ukukwazi ngokukhawuleza nangokuchanekileyo ukwahlula inani elincinci lezinto (Kaufman et al., Ucalucalulo lweenombolo ezibonakalayo, 1949).

Isulcus glottidis: [ilizwi] Ukwenzakala okubangelwa kukutshixeka kwe-mucosa yentambo yelizwi edala i-sac engena kwindawo kaReinke. Kukholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuvuleka okuzenzekelayo kwe-cyst ye-cyst kwiminyaka yokuqala yobomi (cf. IAlbera neRossi, iOtolaryngology, 2018: 251).

T

Ithiyori eyaziwa ngokuba yiMultimedia Learning okanye i-C Petros: [ukufunda] ithiyori ebona ubukho beziteshi ezi-mbini zokufunda, enye ebonakalayo kunye noluhlu olunye, nganye inomda omncinci (izinto ezi-3 okanye ezi-4 ngexesha). Ulwazi oluninzi olwahlukileyo lungaphononongwa, kwaye ke lufundiwe, ukuba lwahlulahlulwe zitshaneli zozibini (ezibonakalayo kunye nophicotho) endaweni yesitayile esinye (umzekelo, isicatshulwa esibhaliweyo nemifanekiso); le ibizwa imowudi yesimo
Ukuba, kwelinye icala, sinikezela ngolwazi olufanayo ngendlela engafunekiyo kwiziteshi ezininzi (ezibonakalayo kunye nezicatshulwa zamazwi) endaweni yento enye (umzekelo, i-auditory), le thethi iqikelela ukonakala ekusebenzeni okunxibelelene nokulayishwa kwememori esebenzayo; Oku kubizwa ngokuba sisiphumo sokungafuneki kwakhona (jonga kwakhona UMayer noFiorella, Imigaqo yokuNcitshiswa kweNqubo eNgaphezulu kwiMultimedia yokuFunda: ukuHlanganisa, ukuThengisa, ukuPhinda-phinda, ukuBamba ngokuBanzi kweMigaqo, kunye neMigaqo yeXeshana yeXeshana, 2014)

Uqoqosho lweToken (Inkqubo yokuNyanzeliswa kweMpawu): [isayikholoji, indlela yokuziphatha] Ubuchule bokusebenza kwengqondo obuquka ukuzoba "ikhontrakthi" phakathi kwesifundo nomzali okanye utitshala, emiselwe imigaqo kuyo; Into yokomfuziselo (okanye ithokheni) iyanikezelwa ngenxa yokuziphatha nganye echanekileyo efunwa yile mithetho, ngelixa naliphi na ithokheni liza kususwa okanye lingayi kunikwa kwimeko yolwaphulo-mthetho olufanayo. Ukufikelela kwinani elimiselweyo lamathokheni, ziya kuguqulwa zibe yibhonasi ekuvunyelenwe ngayo ngaphambili (jonga kwakhona I-Vio kunye ne-Spagnoletti, abaThengisayo kunye nabaNtu abaDala ukuQeqesha: ukuQeqeshwa kwabazali, ka-2013).

V

semthethweni: [psychometry] inqanaba apho isixhobo esithile (uvavanyo) silinganisa ngokwenyani inzala. Yenziwe ikakhulu ngokuqinisekiswa komxholo, ukuqinisekiswa komgangatho kunye nokwakhiwa kokusebenza (jonga kwakhona Iinkcukacha-manani zeeNzululwazi zeZimilo, iWelkowitz, iCohen ne-Ewen, ka-2009).

Ixabiso lokuxelwa kwangaphambili: [Statistical] isithuba esingaphambili sovavanyo lokuqikelela ulwalamano lwezifundo ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo ezingezizo Ukuba nesimilo (ezizinto eziyinyani ezizezinye) ngokubhekisele kuzo zonke ezo zinto zinokungalunganga kolo phawu lunye (ubuchasi bokwenyani + ubuxoki bobuxoki). Umzekelo, ukuba besikho phambi kovavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ze-aphasic, ixabiso elingelilo elifanelekileyo lingumlinganiso phakathi kwezifundo ezinempilo ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo ngovavanyo ngokubhekisele kwinani elipheleleyo le-aphas kunye ne-aphasic engalunganga kuvavanyo. zichazwe ngokuchanekileyo njengezisempilweni.
Ukuba sibiza i-VPN ngexabiso eliqinisekileyo, inani elipheleleyo lezifundo ezinempilo kwaye i-B iyonke yezifundo eziphantsi zichazwe ngokungachanekanga njenge-aphasic singabonisa ixabiso elingelihle lokuqikelela ngolu hlobo: VPN = A / (A + B).

Ixabiso elifanelekileyo lokuqikelela: [izibalo] ezinokubakho emva kovavanyo lokuqikelela umyinge wezifundo ezichongwe ngokuchanekileyo njengezineempawu (izimvo eziyinyani) ngokubhekisele kwitotali yezo zinto zilungileyo (iimpawu zokwenyani kunye neeposta ezingeyonyani). Umzekelo, ukuba besikho phambi kovavanyo lokuchonga izifundo ze-aphasic, ixabiso elinokubakho kwangaphambili liya kuba ngumlinganiso phakathi kwee-aphasics ezichongiweyo ngokuchanekileyo ngovavanyo ngokuthelekiswa ne-aphasics kunye ne-aphasics eyiyo elungele uvavanyo ngempazamo njenge-aphasic).
Ukuba sibiza i-VPP lixabiso eliqinisekileyo, inani elipheleleyo lezifundo ezi-aphasic ezichanekileyo kunye ne-B iyonke yezifundo ezisempilweni zichongwe ngokuchanekileyo njenge-aphasic emva koko sinokubonisa ixabiso elifanelekileyo ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: VPP = A / (A + B).

Iindlela zokuphelisa (indlela yokunciphisa iingcebiso): [inkqubo ye-neuropsychology] yokwazisa egxile ekunciphiseni okuqhubayo kweengcebiso malunga nolwazi oluya kukhunjulwa, emva kwesigaba sokufunda esifanayo (jonga kwakhona Glisky, Schacter kunye Tulve, Ukufunda kunye nokugcinwa kwesigama esihambelana nekhompyuter kwizigulana ezikhubazeke kwimemori: Indlela yokuphela kwezinto ezikhoyo, ngo-1986).

obanzi: [amanani] umlinganiso wokungafani kwamanqaku ipharamitha ejikeleze intsingiselo yawo; Imilinganiselo yokuba angakanani la manani aphambuka ngokulandelelana ngokwentsingiselo ye-arithmetic (jonga kwakhona I-Vio kunye ne-Spagnoletti, abaThengisayo kunye nabaNtu abaDala ukuQeqesha: ukuQeqeshwa kwabazali, ka-2013).

vergeture: [ilizwi] uxinzelelo lomda osimahla wentambo yelizwi ngokunamathela kwe-mucosa kwi-ligal yelizwi (cf. IAlbera neRossi, iOtolaryngology, 2018: 251)

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